Anne Frank • 24.1 America and the World • 24.2 World War II Begins • 24.3 The Holocaust • 24.4 America Enters the War Chapter 24: A World in Flames
24.1 America and the World • The Rise of Dictators • America Turns to Neutrality
The Rise of Dictators • The treaty that ended WWI and the economic depression contributed to the rise of dictatorships in Europe and Asia. • Italy developed the first major dictatorship in Europe. • In 1919 Benito Mussolini founded Italy’s Fascist Party.
The Rise of Dictators • Fascism was a kind of aggressive nationalism. • Fascists believed that the nation was more important than the individual • They also believed a nation became great by expanding its territory and building its military. • Facists were anti-Communist. • Mussolini and Hitler
The Rise of Dictators • Backed by the militia known as Blackshirts, Mussolini became the premier of Italy. • He became a dictator.
The Rise of Dictators • In 1917 the Bolshevik Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, established communism throughout the Russian empire. • The Russian territories were renamed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1922. • The Communists set up a one-party rule.
The Rise of Dictators • By 1926 Joseph Stalin became the new Soviet dictator. • In 1927 he began a massive effort to industrialize the country. • Millions of peasants who resisted the Communist policies were killed.
The Rise of Dictators • Poor economic conditions led to the creation of the Nazi Party. • The Nazi Party was a new political party in Germany. • It was nationalistic and anti-Communist. • Adolf Hitler, a Nazi, called for Germany to be united.
The Rise of Dictators • He believed the Aryans were part of a “master race” destined to rule the world. • He wanted Eastern Europeans enslaved. • He blamed Jews for many of the world’s problems. • In 1933 Hitler was appointed prime minister of Germany.
The Rise of Dictators • Storm troopers intimidated voters into giving Hitler dictatorial powers.
The Rise of Dictators • Poor economic conditions led many Japanese citizens to want more territory to gain resources. • In 1931 the Japanese army invaded the Chinese province of Manchuria. • The army acted without the government’s permission. • The military took control of Japan.
America Turns to Neutrality • America began to support isolationism because of: • the rise of dictatorships in Europe and Asia after WWI • the refusal of European countries to repay war debts • the Nye Committee findings that arms factories made huge profits and helped lead the U.S. into WWI
America Turns to Neutrality • Franklin D. Roosevelt supported internationalism. • Internationalists believe that trade between nations creates prosperity and helps to prevent war.
America Turns to Neutrality • Japan aligned itself with Germany and Italy. • These three countries became known as the Axis Powers. • After Japan attacked China in 1937, FDR authorized the sale of weapons to China. • He claimed the Neutrality Act of 1937 did not apply because neither China nor Japan had actually declared war.
24.2 World War II Begins • Peace in Our Time • The War Begins • Britain Remains Defiant
Peace in Our Time • In February 1938, Adolf Hitler threatened to invade Austria unless Austrian Nazis were given important government posts. • In March 1938, Hitler announced the Anschluss, or unification, of Austria and Germany. • The Sudetenland was an area of Czechoslovakia with a large German-speaking population.
Peace in Our Time • Hitler claimed the Sudentenland for Germany despite Czech resistance. • France, USSR, and Britain threatened Germany if it attacked Czechoslovakia. • At the Munich Conference on September 29, 1938, Britain and France agreed to Hitler’s demands in a policy known as appeasement.
Peace in Our Time • In March 1939, Germany attacked Czechoslovakia. • Hitler also demanded Danzig–Poland’s Baltic Sea port. • He also wanted a highway and railroad across the Polish Corridor. • These demands convinced the British and French that appeasement had failed.
The War Begins • On September 1, 1939, Germany and the USSR invaded Poland. • On September 3, Britain and France declared war on Germany. • World War II had begun. • The Germans used a blitzkrieg, or lightening war, to attack Poland.
The War Begins • The Polish army was defeated by October 5. • On April 9, 1940, the German army attacked Norway and Denmark. • Within a month, Germany overtook both countries.
The War Begins • After World War I, the French built a line of concrete bunkers and fortifications called the Maginot Line along the German border. • Hitler attacked France by going around the Maginot Line by invading the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg.
The War Begins • The French and British tried to help Belgium but was trapped by German forces. • By June 4, the British and French evacuated Belgium through the French port of Dunkirk. • They crossed the English Channel, using ships of all sizes.
The War Begins • On June 22, 1940, France surrendered to the Germans. • Germany installed a puppet government in France.
Britain Remains Defiant • Hitler thought that Britain would negotiate peace after France surrendered. • The British prime minister was Winston Churchill. • Germany had to defeat the British air force to invade Britain.
Britain Remains Defiant • In the Battle of Britain, the German air force, the Luftwaffe, tried to destroy the British Royal Air Force. • The British responded by bombing Berlin, Germany.
Britain Remains Defiant • The British responded by bombing Berlin, Germany. • The Royal Air Force was greatly outnumbered by the Luftwaffe. • The British had radar stations able to detect incoming German aircraft and direct British fighters to intercept them.
24.3 The Holocaust • Nazi Persecution of the Jews • The Final Solution
Nazi Persecution of the Jews • The Nazis killed nearly 6 million Jews and millions of others during the Holocaust. • The Hebrew term for the Nazi campaign to exterminate the Jews is Shoah. • The Nazis persecuted Jews, the disabled, Gypsies, homosexuals, and Slavic peoples. • In September 1935, the Nuremberg Laws denied citizenship to Jewish Germans and banned marriage between Jews and other Germans.
Nazi Persecution of the Jews • Jews were deprived of many rights. • By 1936 at least half of Germany’s Jews were jobless. • Jewish persecution intensified on November 9, 1938, known as Kristallnacht, or “night of broken glass.” • Ninety Jews died. • Hundreds were badly injured. • Jewish businesses were destroyed. • Over 180 synagogues were wrecked. • Between 1933 and 1939, many Jews escaped Nazi-controlled Germany. • Many emigrated to the U.S. • Millions of Jews stayed trapped in Nazi territory.
Nazi Persecution of the Jews • Jews were deprived of many rights. • By 1936 at least half of Germany’s Jews were jobless.
Nazi Persecution of the Jews • Jewish persecution intensified on November 9, 1938, known as Kristallnacht, or “night of broken glass.” • Ninety Jews died. • Hundreds were badly injured. • Jewish businesses were destroyed. • Over 180 synagogues were wrecked.
Nazi Persecution of the Jews • Between 1933 and 1939, many Jews escaped Nazi-controlled Germany. • Many emigrated to the U.S. • Millions of Jews stayed trapped in Nazi territory.
The Final Solution • On January 20, 1942, Nazi leaders met at the Wannsee Conference to decide the “final solution” of the Jews and other “undesirables.” • Jews were sent to concentration camps–detention centers where individuals worked as slave laborers.
The Final Solution • Upon arrival, the prisoners were soon divided into two groups: skilled laborers and unskilled laborer. • Skilled laborers were forced to work. • The unskilled Jews, the elderly, the sick, and young children were sent to extermination camps. • Gas chambers and ovens were used to kill the Jews.
The Final Solution • Auschwitz was the most famous extermination camp. • 1, 600, 000 people were gassed at Auschwitz. • 300, 000 were Poles, Soviet POWs, and gypsies. • The rest were Jews.
Auschwitz Gates • “Work brings freedom”
The Final Solution • The Nazis built concentration camps throughout Europe. • Extermination camps were built in many concentration camps, mostly in Poland. • Thousands were killed each day at these camps. • In only a few years, Jewish culture had been virtually obliterated by the Nazis.
24.4 America Enters the War • FDR Supports England • The Isolationist Debate • Edging Toward War • Japan Attacks the United States