Aggression Leads to War • The conditions for the Great Depression helped to set the stage for a new world war • Several nations came to believe that democratic governments were too weak to solve problems. • They turned to dictators in hopes of having their problems solved.
Aggression Leads to War • The Rise of Dictators • Soviet Communism • Josef Stalin had become sole dictator of the Soviet Union by 1929 • Turned the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state • Stalin took brutal measures to control and modernize industry and agriculture • Famers had to give crops, animals, and land to government run farms • If anyone was seen as being disloyal they would be killed
Aggression Leads to War • Fascism in Italy • Benito Mussolini promised to restore order to Italy
Aggression Leads to War • Mussolini was appointed prime minister in October of 1922 • Italy was turned into aFascist state • Ended freedom of the press and banned all political parties (except his own) • Critics of him were jailed or murdered • Schools had children recite the motto “Mussolini is always right”
Aggression Leads to War • Nazi Germany • Many Germans were angry with the outcome of WWI and the punishments they received
Aggression Leads to War • Adolf Hitler • Created the National Socialist Party (Nazi) • Hitler and Nazi party believed Germans were a “master race.” • Anti-Semitism (hatred of Jews) was a major part of Nazi beliefs.
Aggression Leads to War • Hitler gained popularity during the Great Depression and became chancellor (leader of German parliament) in 1933 • He quickly created a totalitarian state and outlawed all political parties (except Nazi party) • Jews were also banned from public schools and from certain professions
Aggression Leads to War • Militarism in Japan • The Great Depression ruined democratic rule in Japan as well • Military leaders took control of Japan by 1936 and started to expand (imperialism)
Aggression Leads to War • Military Aggression • Germany, Italy, and Japan had policies of aggression
Aggression Leads to War • Japan attacked and took over parts of China through the 1930s • Italy attacked and conquered Ethiopia
Aggression Leads to War • German Aggression • Hitler wanted an empire that united all German-speaking people • He began to rebuild German military • Germany sent troops and occupied Austria and part of the Rhineland • European democracies did nothing to stop Hitler (appeasement)
Aggression Leads to War • Munich Pact • Hitler wanted part of Czechoslovakia • France and Britain wanted to appease Hitler by allowing him to have the peace of Czechoslovakia and be able to avoid war.
Aggression Leads to War • War Begins in Europe • Nazi-Soviet Pact • Pact signed between Hitler and Stalin that promised neither country would attack the other. • September 1, 1939 Nazi German invades Poland • Two days after the invasion Britain and France declare war on Germany
Answer These Questions • Why were countries getting rid of their democratic governments leading up to WWII? • What type of governments were replacing democratic governments? • Who were the dictators of the Soviet Union, Germany, and Italy? How did they manage to keep control of the countries?
Aggression Leads to War • Germany was unstoppable in the early days of the war • In April and May of 1940 they conquered • Netherlands • Luxembourg • Belgium • Denmark • Norway
Aggression Leads to War • Germany invaded France in May of 1940 • British and French troops tried to resist the assault but were overpowered • British sent every available ship and boat across the English Channel to rescue the trapped soldiers • June 22, 1940 France surrendered to Hitler
Aggression Leads to War • Battle of Britain • Winston Churchill expressed hope in Britain being able to fend off German advancements • Hitler ordered an air assault on Britain • Britain was able to defend against all air attacks and force Hitler to give up on his plan to invade.
Aggression Leads to War • Invasion of the Soviet Union • June 22, 1941, Hitler broke pact with Stalin and invade the Soviet Union • Soviet Union and Britain joined forces to defeat a common enemy.
The United States at War • America remained neutral in the beginning of the war • However, Roosevelt sided with Britain and the other Allies (France and Soviet Union)
The United States at War • Lend Lease Act • Britain was poor and could not afford to buy supplies from the U.S. • Roosevelt did not want Britain to fall to Hitler • Lend Lease allowed for U.S. to lend or lease supplies to Britain
The United States at War • U.S. started to build up their military in 1940 to try to prepare in case the U.S. would be drawn into the war. • FDR created the first African American Army Air Corps in 1940 known as the Tuskegee Airmen
The United States at War • Pearl Harbor • December 7, 1941, Japanese Bombers launched a surprise attack on the American naval, air, and ground forces at Pearl Harbor. • Half of the military aircrafts and 8 battleships were damaged (two beyond repair) • 2,400 Americans were killed • December 8, 1941 the U.S. declared war on Japan and within 3 days were at war with Germany and Italy