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Chapter 11: World War II

Chapter 11: World War II

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Chapter 11: World War II

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  1. Section 1: The Allies Turn the Tide Chapter 11:World War II United States History Ms. Girbal Tuesday, April 21, 2015

  2. Warm-up (4-21-15) • During WWII, the Allies agreed to a “Europe First” strategy to defeat Hitler. • What does this mean? • Germany was the most dangerous enemy • Ultimate goal was to fight and win a two front war, however, Allies decided to focus on defeating Hitler first and then the Pacific would come second • How would have the outcome of WWII been different had the Allies decided to divide their focus of their war effort equally between Europe and the Pacific? • Please share your opinion in at least 4-5 sentences.

  3. Chapter 11 Timeline • Tuesday, April 21- Section 1 and WWII Map • Thursday, April 22- Section 2 • Friday, April 24- WWII Activity • Tuesday, April 28- Section 3 • Quiz on Sections 1 &2 • Wednesday, April 29- Sections 4 and 5 • Friday, May 1- Review for Ch. 10 and 11 • Monday, May 4- Chapter 10 & 11 Test

  4. Objectives • Analyze the reasons for and impact of the Allies’“Europe First” strategy. • Explain why the battles of Stalingrad and Midway were major turning points in the war. • Discuss how the Allies put increasing pressure on the Axis in North Africa and Europe.

  5. The Allies viewed Germany as the most dangerous Axis Power. For these reasons, the Allies agreed to a “Europe First” strategy to defeat Hitler. • The German military could: • bomb Britain • • fight both the U.S. and British navies • • invade the Soviet Union

  6. The U.S. moved quickly to produce military supplies and send them to Europe. Hitler was determined to prevent the supplies from reaching Europe. “Wolf packs” of German U-boats sank thousands of supply ships in the North Atlantic. New technology such as radar helped the Allies target the U-boats and restore the supply lines.

  7. Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941. Millions of soldiers and civilians died in fierce fighting. After a long struggle, the Soviets defeated the Germans at Stalingrad. Thousands of Germans surrendered.

  8. Nazi armies were forced to retreat westward, back toward Germany. • The Soviet Union was now on the offensive. • Hitler’s dream of dominating Europe was crushed. The Battle of Stalingrad proved to be a major turning point of the war in Europe.

  9. Meanwhile, Allied forces pressured the Axis on another front—the deserts of North Africa. • British win a major victory at El Alamein in Egypt and push westward. • Month later, land in Morocco and Algeria and move east to German positions. • General Dwight Eisenhower commanded the Allied invasion. • Heat, sandstorms, and scorpions made conditions difficult.

  10. Tank battles dominated the fighting, pitting two brilliant tank strategists against each other. German General Erwin Rommel, the “Desert Fox” American General George S. Patton, Jr. Patton eventually defeated Rommel’s Afrika Korps, forcing a German surrender.

  11. FDR and Churchill met and decided they were going to (1) increase bombing of Germany and (2)invade Italy. The Allied victory in North Africa paved the way for an invasion of Italy, with forces capturing Sicily. The campaign ended the rule of Benito Mussolini. In 1943, Italy surrendered to the Allies.

  12. The Allies nexttook the fight to the air. Bombers launched nonstop attacks against Germany. The goal wasunconditional surrender. • massive saturation bombing (massive damage) • pinpoint strategic bombing • Tuskegee Airmen

  13. While battles raged in Europe, the Allies continued to fight Japanese advances in the Pacific. • Japanese controlled Philippines, Malaya, Dutch East Indies, Hong Kong, Wake Island, Guam and Burma. • Admiral Yamamotowanted to destroy America aircraft carriers in Pacific before they could retaliate for Pearl Harbor. • Yamamoto did not realize that US Navy Commander, Nimitz intercepted the code and knew of his plans. • At Midway, Allied aircraft carriers and fighter planes were victorious in fierce fighting.

  14. The Battle of Midway proved to be a major turning point of the war in the Pacific. • Japan’s momentum was finally halted. • Americans took the offensive, moving on to defeat the Japanese at Guadalcanal. • Now the Allies began advancing—toward Japan.

  15. Homework (4-21-15) • WWII Map Identifications