CHAPTER World War Looms 24 Overview Time Lines 1 Dictators Threaten World Peace SECTION 2 War in Europe SECTION 3 The Holocaust SECTION 4 America Moves Toward War SECTION Chapter Assessment Transparencies
THEMES IN CHAPTER 24 Cultural Diversity Science and Technology Immigration and Migration Constitutional Concerns CHAPTER World War Looms 24 HOME “This nation will remain a neutral nation, but I cannot ask that every American remain neutral in thought as well.” President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, August 24, 1939
What do you know? • • What do you already know about World War II? • Have you ever discussed World War II with someone who lived through it? If so, what did he or she say? • • What do you know about dictators in the Soviet Union, Italy, Germany, and Japan? How do you think they attained power? • • What do you already know about the Holocaust? How have you seen it portrayed in movies, books, and television? CHAPTER World War Looms 24 HOME
1935Congress passes the first Neutrality Act. 1937President Roosevelt delivers his anti- isolationist “quarantine” speech. 1941The United States enters the war after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. President Roosevelt signs the Lend- Lease Act, and U.S. industry begins mass production of war materiél. CHAPTER Time Line 24 HOME The United States
1931Japan invades Manchuria. 1933Hitler becomes chancellor of Germany. 1935Mussolini invades Ethiopia. 1936The Spanish Civil War begins. Germany occupies the Rhineland. 1937Japan invades China. 1938Germany annexes Austria. 1939Germany invades Poland, starting World War II. The Nazis begin to convert labor camps into extermination camps. 1940Britain and Germany fight the Battle of Britain. Japan, Germany, and Italy sign pact. 1941Germany invades the Soviet Union. Japan attacks Pearl Harbor. CHAPTER Time Line 24 HOME The World
Learn About the rise of totalitarian dictatorships in Europe and Asia. To Understand the challenge they posed to the U.S. policy of neutrality. SECTION 1 Dictators Threaten World Peace HOME
SECTION 1 Dictators Threaten World Peace HOME Key Idea The United States remains isolated from world affairs as economic and political factors lead to the rise of nationalist leaders in the Soviet Union, Germany, and Italy.
Ambitions of European Dictators Stalin Mussolini Hitler SECTION 1 Dictators Threaten World Peace HOME 1 Section Assessment SUMMARIZING What were the main ambitions of European dictators Stalin, Mussolini, and Hitler? To create a model Communist state and to transform the Soviet Union into a great industrial power To make Italy a greatworld power To unite the German“master race” into an empire destined to rule the world
ANALYZING CAUSES How did the Treaty of Versailles sow the seeds of instability in Europe? THINK ABOUT • effects of the treaty on Germany and the Soviet Union • effects of the treaty on national pride • the economic legacy of World War I SECTION 1 Dictators Threaten World Peace HOME 1 Section Assessment
ANALYZING MOTIVES Why do you think Hitler found widespread support among the German people? THINK ABOUT • Germans’ postwar resentment and bitterness • Germany’s economic situation before Hitler’s rise to power • the appeal of Hitler’s Nazi beliefs SECTION 1 Dictators Threaten World Peace HOME 1 Section Assessment
Learn About the weak response of world leaders to Hitler’s aggressive moves in the late 1930s. To Understand how Germany started World War II. SECTION 2 War in Europe HOME
SECTION 2 War in Europe HOME Key Idea A series of bold moves by Adolf Hitler—and weak countermoves by other leaders—triggers World War II in Europe.
Germany’s invasion of Poland signing of the Munich Pact Hitler’s annexation of Austria signing of the nonaggression pact SECTION 2 War in Europe HOME 2 Section Assessment FOLLOWING CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER In what sequence did the following events occur: Germany’s invasion of Poland, Hitler’s annexation of Austria, signing of the nonaggression pact, signing of the Munich Pact? EVENT 2 EVENT 4 EVENT 1 EVENT 3
SYNTHESIZING To what extent do you think lies and deception played a role in Hitler’s tactics? THINK ABOUT • William Shirer’s diary entry about headlines in the Nazi newspapers • Soviet-German relations • Hitler’s justifications for military aggression SECTION 2 War in Europe HOME 2 Section Assessment
MAKING DECISIONS If you had been a member of the British House of Commons in 1938, would you have voted for or against the Munich Pact? THINK ABOUT • Hitler’s credibility • the British public’s fear of being involved in another war • Churchill’s opinion of the appeasement policy SECTION 2 War in Europe HOME 2 Section Assessment
Learn About Hitler’s plans for the German “master race”. To Understand the fate of Jews and other “enemies” of the Third Reich. SECTION 3 The Holocaust HOME
SECTION 3 The Holocaust HOME Key Idea Hitler’s plans for conquering the world include the killing of Jews and other ethnic groups, which is carried out with frightening determination and success.
ANALYZING CAUSES What were at least four events that led to the Holocaust? CAUSES EFFECT the removal of non-Aryans from government jobs Nuremberg Laws stripping Jews of their civil rights and property The Holocaust Kristallnacht—Nazi storm troopers’ attack on Jewishhomes, businesses, and synagogues “final solution”—systematic genocide of Jews, gypsies, and other groups that Nazis considered “subhuman” SECTION 3 The Holocaust HOME 33 Section Assessment
SUPPORTING OPINIONS Do you think that the United States was justified in not allowing more Jewish refugees to emigrate? Why or why not? THINK ABOUT • the views of isolationists in the United States • some Americans’ prejudices and fears • the incident on the German luxury liner, St. Louis SECTION 3 The Holocaust HOME 33 Section Assessment
DEVELOPING HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Why do you think the Nazi program of systematic genocide was so brutally effective? THINK ABOUT • the long German history of anti-Semitism • the secrecy and lies told by the Nazis • the scope and organization of the Nazis’ genocidal plans SECTION 3 The Holocaust HOME 3 Section Assessment
Learn About the American response to aggression in Europe and Asia. To Understand how the United States entered World War II. SECTION 4 America Moves Toward War HOME
SECTION 4 America Moves Toward War HOME Key Idea The United States provides aid to nations resisting Hitler and enters World War II after the bombing of Pearl Harbor.
SUMMARIZING What were some of the key events that led to the U.S. entry into World War II? August 1941 March 1941 June 1941 September 1940 December 1941 SECTION 4 America Moves Toward War HOME 4 Section Assessment Congress passes Lend-Lease Act. Roosevelt and Churchill draw up Atlantic Charter. Japan, Germany, and Italy sign the Tripartite Pact. Japan bombs Pearl Harbor. Germany invades Soviet Union; Roosevelt orders U.S. Navy to protect lend-lease shipments.
FORMING OPINIONS Do you think the the United States should have waited to be attacked before declaring war? THINK ABOUT • the reputation of the United States • the influence of the isolationists • the destruction of Pearl Harbor SECTION 4 America Moves Toward War HOME 4 Section Assessment
CLARIFYING Although the U.S. Congress was still unwilling to declare war early in 1941, Churchill told his war cabinet, “We must have patience and trust to the tide which is flowing our way, and to events.” What do you think Churchill meant by this remark? THINK ABOUT • Roosevelt’s series of “unneutral” steps to assist Great Britain in its war efforts • the Atlantic Charter • Churchill’s view of Hitler SECTION 4 America Moves Toward War HOME 4 Section Assessment
24 Chapter Assessment HOME 1. What were Stalin’s goals and what steps did he take to achieve them? 2. What actions that the League of Nations took revealed its inability to control the aggressive moves of Japan, Germany, and Italy? 3. How did Germany’s and Italy’s involvement affect the outcome of the Spanish Civil War? 4. Why was the blitzkrieg an effective military strategy? 5. What terms of surrender did Hitler demand of French officers after the fall of France in 1940? What was General Charles de Gaulle’s reaction?
24 Chapter Assessment HOME 6. What groups did Nazis deem unfit to belong to the Aryan “master race”? 7. How did some Europeans show their resistance to Nazi persecution of the Jews? 8. Which nations formed the Axis powers? What were the military implications of the Tripartite Pact for the United States? 9. What congressional measures paved the way for the United States entry into World War II? 10. Why did the United States enter World War II?