World War Looms Chapter 24
Totalitarian Fascism Nazism Neutrality Acts Appeasement Nonaggression pact Blitzkreig Holocaust Genocide Ghetto Concentration camp Axis Powers Allies Atlantic Charter Manhattan Project Rationing D-Day Kamikaze Nuremberg trials Internment Essential Vocabulary
Objectives • 10.01 • Appeasement • Isolationism • Reparations • Totalitarian governments • Treaty of Versailles • Worldwide depression • 10.02 • The United States at war • The influences of propaganda at home and abroad • Designs for peace • 10.03 • The Homefront • Suspension of civil liberties • Suburbanization • Transition to peacetime
Essential Questions • How are civil liberties challenged during times of conflict? • How has the perception of the US in the world changed as US self-perception has changed? • How has the American view of the world been shaped by its own size, location, and natural resource base? • Why was World War II a major turning point in American history?
Crash Course • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Objoad6rG6U
Aftermath of World War I • Nationalism Grips Europe and Asia • 2 Failures of the Treaty of Versailles • Caused anger and resentment • Democracies that were created collapsed
Communism • An economic and political system • One Party System • State ownership of all property
Totalitarianism • Totalitarian: Gov. has full control over the people. • No rights, no opposition • Total control
Fascism • Stressed nationalism. • Placed interest of the state over the individual • Strength though unity. • Fasces in Latin
Nazism • German brand of Fascism • Extreme nationalism • Extreme Racism • Extreme Expansion
USSR • Joseph Stalin • Soviet Union established in 1922 • Wanted to make the Soviet Union a great industrial power • Responsible for the deaths of 8-13 million of his own people • Totalitarian-Communist
Italy • Benito Mussolini • Powerful speaker • Fear of communism • Marched on Rome in 1922 • “Black Shirts” • Totalitarian-Fascist
Germany • Adolf Hitler • Appointed chancellor in 1933 • Mein Kampf-My Struggle • Wanted to bring all German speaking people under one empire • Racial purification • National expansion • Established the Third Reich • Totalitarian-Nazism
Japan and Spain • Japan • Militarists • Seized control of Manchuria in 1931 • Quit the League of Nations • Spain • Francisco Franco • After the Spanish Civil War, Franco emerged as the fascist dictator
America Responds Cautiously • Isolationism • Neutrality Acts • Outlawed arms sales or loans to nations at war and to nations in civil wars
Austria • Small nation created after The Paris Peace Conference • Majority of population were Germans • March 12th 1938 Austria Falls unopposed. • World does nothing
Czechoslovakia/ Sudetenland • In Sudetenland, western boarder of Czechoslovakia • 3 Million German speaking people lived • More living space • More Resources
Protection to Appeasement • Britain and France to protect Czechoslovakia • Neville Chamberlain and Edouard Daladier invited to Munich, Germany to meet with Hitler • Sudetenland “last territorial demand” • Munich Agreement signed in Sep. 1938 by Chamberlain, Daladier, and Hitler. Gave Sudetenland to Germany, no shots fired. • Appeasement: Giving up principals to pacify and aggressor.
Winston Churchill • Political rival of Neville Chamberlain • Believed the Munich Agreement was shameful • Hated the idea of appeasement • “Britain and France had to chose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor. They will have war.”
The German Offensive Begins • March 15th, 1939 rest of Czechoslovakia. taken. • Britain and France both to supply military aid to Poland • Germany wouldn’t dare, could bring Russia, Britain, and France in. • Two Front War.
Soviet Union • August 23rd 1939 Signing of the Nonaggression Pact: both Russia and Germany would not attack each other. • Secret pact to divide Poland • Two Front War no mas • Poland's fate is sealed
Blitzkrieg in Poland • September 1st 1939 • Blitzkrieg: Lightning War • Luftwaffe – German Forces pour into Poland • Made use of new German technologies. Faster Tanks and more powerful airplanes • Bombing cities, military bases, airfields, and railroads • Chaos in the country.
War Declared • September 3rd 1939 • Britain and France declare war • Soviet Union takes eastern portion of Poland
The Phony War • French and British troops sat on Maginot Line: system of fortifications along eastern Franco-German Boarder. • German Forces sat on Siegfried Line: • Germans called this the Sitzkrieg: Sitting war.
Soviet Union • After taking eastern Poland • Stalin takes Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania • Also takes Finland by end of 1939
Germany • April 4th 1940 • Hitler takes Denmark and Norway to “protect those countries freedom and independence.” • By May of 1940 Belgium, The Netherlands, and Luxembourg are over run
France and Britain Fight On • Maginot Line is ineffective • Bypasses through Belgium • Into Ardennes: Wooded region in northeastern France • Next stop Paris
Fall of France • Germans trap 400,000 French, Belgian, and British Troops at Dunkirk • In 1 week more than 800 vessels brought 330,000 troops to Britain. • Italy joins in war on German side • Invades southern France • Fall of France • June 22, 1940 • Charles de Gaulle • Set up a government-in-exile
Battle of Britain • Germany cant compete with British Navy • Fight by air • Use of 2,600 Planes • Every night for two months bombs fell on London • Royal Air Force use of radar to take down planes
The Holocaust • Holocaust • Systematic murder of 11 million people, more than half of them Jews • The Persecution Begins • Anti-Semitism : hatred of jews • Nuremberg Laws 1935: • Jews were stripped of their rights, property, and jobs • Forced to wear a yellow star for identification
The Persecution Begins • Kristallnacht • November 9-10, 1938 • “Night of the Broken Glass” • Flood of Jewish Refugees • Many fled the country, but had trouble finding countries that would accept them • St. Louis
Hitler’s “Final Solution” • Genocide—deliberate and systematic killing of an entire population • Targeted groups: Jews, gypsies, freemasons, Jehovah’s Witnesses, homosexuals, mentally deficient, mentally ill, physically disabled, incurably ill
Hitler’s “Final Solution” • Ghettos • Segregated areas in certain Polish cities • Concentration camps • Labor camps • The Final Stage • Mass exterminations • Death camps
The Condemned • Belief that the Aryan Race was superior • Need to rid of the undesirables • Special Nazi Death “Security Squadrons” (SS)
Write a reflection • I want you to consider the impact the Holocaust may have on a population. Include some details which you have learned in this lesson. You may write it as a letter, Journal entry, or even pose questions. Please be sure to take your time.
Turn to your partner • Why do you think this happened? • What would you do if this were to happen to you and your family? • How were these people targeted in what ways? • Do you think this will ever happen again?
Inside the Nazi War Machine • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YPdRRUvnji4
America Moves Toward War • Moving away from neutrality • Cash and Carry • Tripartite Pact • Germany, Italy and Japan • Became known as the Axis Powers • Roosevelt runs for a third term and wins with 55% of the vote
America Moves Toward War • Lend-Lease Plan • The president would lend or lease arms to “any country whose defense was vital the United States” • Both Great Britain and Russia benefit • German Wolf Packs • German submarines • US had permission to attack them in self defense German U-Boat being attacked by Allied Aircraft.
FDR Plans for War • The Atlantic Charter • Joint declaration of war aims • Collective security, disarmament, self-determination, economic cooperation, and freedom of the seas • Shoot on Sight • FDR ordered that German submarines be shot on sight after a US destroyer was fired on • Other US ships were attacked as well