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World War Looms

World War Looms

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World War Looms

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  1. World War Looms Chapter 24

  2. Surges of Nationalism • After WWI, many countries attempted to return to normal • ended up suffering from economic depression • New democracies tried to emerge, but people had no confidence in them • Dictators began to take control • used nationalism (loyalty to one’s country) and dreams of territorial expansion • people turned to them to solve economic and social problems

  3. Treaty of Versailles Fails • Treaty caused anger and resentment • Germany was upset at being blamed for WWI • Russia and Germany resented having their territories taken away

  4. Changes In Europe Soviet Union: - Democracy civil war communist - Stalin took over - totalitarian gov’t - agricultural and industrial growth - became 2nd largest industry Germany: - Hitler and Nazi party gain power - German economy was suffering - Wanted racial purification - Wanted to gain back territories - set up Third Reich - sent troops into Rhineland Italy: - Mussolini starts totalitarianregime - set up Fascist Party - wanted to become a world power - took control over all aspects of life -invaded Ethiopia Spain: - Franco rebelled against republic - wanted to spread Fascism - FrancoaidedbyHitler&Mussolini - Soviet Union sent equipment - set up totalitarian gov’t Japan: - Military leaders take control - wanted more territory - took control of Manchuria - Tojo took control

  5. US Isolationism • Americans alarmed by conflicts in Europe • didn’t want US to get involved • Kellogg-Briand Pact – war is not to be used “as an instrument of national policy” • Had no way to enforce it, wasn’t signed by all countries • US feared being drawn into another war • enforced policy of nonintervention • Good Neighbor policy, Reciprocal Trade Agreement

  6. Neutrality Acts • 1 – outlawed weapons sales to nations at war • 2 – outlawed loaning money to nations at war • 3 – banned selling weapons or making loans to nations involved in civil wars • Didn’t last long • 1937 - Japan attacked China • US sent supplies and weapons to China • FDR – Japan didn’t technically declare war, so it’s not against the Neutrality Acts • FDR spoke out against isolationism, wanted to “quarantine” aggressor nations

  7. Lebensraum • Hitler wanted to expand • didn’t care if his actions would provoke a war • Anschluss (union) - Austria • most people living in Austria were German and favored unification • Sudetenland - Czechoslovakia • Hitler accused the Czechs of attacking the Germans • France and Great Britain had promised to aid Czechoslovakia • gave into Hitler because he claimed it was his last territorial demand

  8. Munich Agreement • turned Sudentenland over to Germany • British PM Chamberlain thought it would lead to peace • Churchill thought it was appeasement • Hitler took over the rest of Czechoslovakia anyway • claimed “Czechoslovakia has ceased to exist” • wanted Poland as well

  9. Non-Aggression with Soviets • Hitler attempted the same actions with Poland • an attack on Poland may cause conflict with Soviets • France and Britain would come to Poland’s aid • To avoid another 2-front war, Hitler signed a non-aggression pact with Stalin • agreed not to attack each other • secretly agreed to split Poland between them

  10. Blitzkrieg • Sept 1, 1939 – Luftwaffe (German air force) • bombed Poland • first appearance of the blitzkrieg • takes enemy by surprise and overwhelming force • major fighting was done in 3 weeks • Germany attacked from the west, Soviets from the east • Poland’s allies didn’t have time to help ** Start of WWII **

  11. Sitzkrieg • after the fall of Poland, British and French troops set up along the eastern border of France, waiting for the Germans • German troops sat a few miles away • Referred to as the “phony war”

  12. Germany and Soviet Union expand • Germany: • Denmark • Norway • Netherlands • Belgium • Luxembourg • Soviet Union: • Estonia • Latvia • Lithuania • Finland

  13. Fall of France • Germans sent tanks through France and marched on Paris • chased the British and French troops to the English Channel • Italy entered the war on Germany’s side and invaded France from the south • Germany’s terms of surrender • northern portion of France – Germany • southern portion of France – Nazi controlled gov’t • Charles de Gaulle set up a gov’t in exile in Britain

  14. Battle of Britain • Germans prepared to invade Britain • Germany knew it couldn’t beat the British navy, so they launched the navy and Luftwaffe at the same time • wanted to destroy the Royal Air Force • Radar allowed the RAF to fight at night • Hitler called off the invasion after losing 185+ aircraft

  15. The Holocaust • Watch the video, answer the questions

  16. Moving away from neutrality • FDR knew that he needed to convince America to revise the Neutrality Acts • Proposed a “cash and carry” policy • warring countries can purchase arms if they pay cash and transport in their own ships • FDR argued it would help France and Britain beat Hitler • “cash and carry” wasn’t doing enough, so Roosevelt decided to give France and Britain “all aid short of war” • PM Churchill referred to this as a “decided unneutral act”

  17. Axis Powers • Germany, Italy and Japan signed a mutual defense treaty • each nation would come to each other’s defense in case of attack • This meant that if the US were to declare war, then they would be facing a war from both the Atlantic and Pacific

  18. FDR’s actions in the US • asked Congress to increase defense spending • passed 1st peacetime military draft • men 21-35 years old • FDR was also running for his 3rd term • his opponent also supported aiding Britain and France, so people chose the candidate they were most familiar with • Decided to alert the US that if Britain fell to Hitler, then America would be next

  19. Lend-Lease Plan • FDR promised to lend or lease arms and supplies to any nation whose defense was vital to the defense of the US • Passed by Congress, wanted to aid Britain especially • decided to include the Soviet Union • wanted revenge on Hitler after violating the non-aggression pact

  20. Planning for War • Germany’s U-boats were trying to sink ships carrying supplies for Britain and France • referred to as the “rattlesnakes of the Atlantic” • Atlantic Charter – FDR and Churchill agreed that they would fight the Axis together • 26 nations signed the charter

  21. Invasion of Pearl Harbor • Japan wanted to control East Asia • Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia etc • US and its territories blocked their path, and had placed an oil embargo on Japan • Emperor Hirohito wanted to retain peace with US • General Tojo planned to attack • US knew they were coming, had broke Japan’s codes • warned the bases in the Pacific

  22. Invasion of Pearl Harbor • December 7, 1941 – Japanese kamikaze pilots attacked Pearl Harbor • in less than 2 hrs the attack was done • killed 2400+ • wounded 1100+ • sank/damaged 21 ships • US didn’t want to fight a war on 2 fronts • knew they needed a strong navy and air force to succeed • December 11, 1941 – US declared war on Japan

  23. REVIEW