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World War Looms

World War Looms

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World War Looms

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  1. World War Looms The Rise of Totalitarianism in the 20s and 30s

  2. Joseph Stalin Transforms the Soviet Union • Russian autocracy falls to communism • Soviet Union is born • Joseph Stalin takes control • totalitarian state • Five-Year Plans (1928) • Industrial nation • Collectivize farms • Killed between 8-13 million Russians

  3. The Rise of Fascism in Italy • High unemployment and inflation • Strikes, some communist led • Middle and Upper class feared communists • Called for a strong leader • 1921 Benito Mussolini est. Fascist Party- demagogue • 1922 He leads a march on Rome • “Black Shirts” • Mussolini appointed head of government • Creates a totalitarian state: nationalism

  4. Hitler Takes Over Germany • 1919 Hitler joins the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi) • Quickly rose w/in the party • Sent to prison • High treason • Tried to copy Mussolini- demagogue • Wrote Mein Kampf • My struggle

  5. Hitler Takes Over Germany • Goals of Nazis • Unite all German speaking people in a great German Empire. (nationalism) • Enforce racial “purification” • Master Race = blonde hair, blue eyed Germans • Inferior Races = Jews, Gypsies, Slavs, Africans, Homosexuals • National expansion • Lebensraum – living space

  6. Japanese Aggression • Militarists take control 1930s • Invade Manchuria (China) in 1931- need natural resources • Quit League of Nations • war w/ China • Rape of Nanjing • 300,000 civilians massacred • 20,000 women raped

  7. Hideki Tojo takes over 1941

  8. German & Italian Aggression ‘33-36 • Quit L of N • Military buildup • Troops in the Rhineland • Italy attacks Ethiopia 1935 • Fascists in Spain 1936

  9. USA and neutrality • Neutrality Acts of 1935, 36, & 37 • keep country out of conflicts • keep selling oil and products to countries

  10. War in Europe

  11. Austria Falls • Union with Austria • Nation was created at Paris Peace Conference • Majority of population were German • Favored unification • March 12, 1938 German troops marched unopposed • Who’s next?

  12. Czechoslovakia Falls • Hitler’s next target was Czechoslovakia • 3 million Germans lived in Sudetenland • Western border • Lebensraumand resources • Hitler claims Czechs were abusing Germans • Sep. 30, 1938 Munich Agreement • Sudetenland given to Hitler • Appeasement • Neville Chamberlain • “…Peace in our time”

  13. German Offensive Begins • Do you think Appeasement will work? • March 15, 1939 Hitler marches into the rest of Czechoslovakia

  14. 1939 Hitler wants Poland similar claims as in Czechoslovakia Many thought it was a bluff An attack on Poland might start a conflict with the Soviet Union Attacking Poland would most likely provoke a declaration of war from Britain and France Non-aggression Pact was signed August 23, 1939 Germany and the Soviet Union wouldn’t attack each other Secret pact signed that agreed to divide Poland between the two nations The Polish Question

  15. Blitzkrieg • “lightning warfare” • A plan to prevent the formation of trench warfare • The tactic: • Fast Tanks • Troop transports

  16. Blitzkrieg in Action • Sep. 1, 1939 Hitler attacks Poland • Blitzkrieg was very effective • War was over in three weeks • The Soviet Union attacks from the East • Britain and France declare war • April 9, 1940 Hitler invades Denmark and Norway • preparation for an attack on Britain

  17. Fall of France • Maginot Line Failed- heavily armed fortresses • Hitler sent his army through Belgium and the Ardennes Forest. (NE France) • Hitler marched on Paris • June 22, 1940 Hitler hands surrender orders to French Officers • Puppet Gov est. called Vichy in So. France • Marshal Philippe Petain

  18. Battle of Britain • Summer 1940-Luftwaffe starts bombing Britain • RAF fights back • Battle of Britain • radar • Hitler calls off land invasion in November

  19. Moving Away from Neutrality • Congress passes Neutrality Acts of 1939 • “Cash-and-Carry” went into effect • Britain and France would pay for weapons in cash and transport them in their own ships. • Helping Britain and France defeat Hitler would keep U.S. out of the war.

  20. The Lend Lease • March 1941 Congress passes Lend-Lease Act • Lend or lease arms and supplies • Isolationists weren’t pleased • Support of Stalin • Hitler attacks USSR-June 1941 • “The enemy of an enemy is my friend.” • Isolationists not pleased

  21. The Axis Threat, 1940 • Tripartite Pact signed b/n Germany, Italy, and Japan • Mutual defense treaty • Agree to defend each other against U.S. • U.S. would have to fight a two-ocean war • Worse than two-front war

  22. Atlantic Charter • U.S. and Great Britain promised: • collective security, disarmament, self-determination, economic cooperation and freedom of the seas • “A Declaration of the United Nations”

  23. Japan Attacks the United States • December 7, 1941 • 7:53 a.m., 181 Japanese bombers attack Pearl Harbor • Sunk or damaged 21 ships, including 8 battleships • 300 aircraft were damaged or destroyed • 2,403 Americans killed • 1, 178 Americans injured