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World War Looms

World War Looms

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World War Looms

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  1. CHAPTER World War Looms 24 Overview Time Lines 1 Dictators Threaten World Peace SECTION 2 War in Europe SECTION 3 The Holocaust SECTION 4 America Moves Toward War SECTION Chapter Assessment Transparencies

  2. THEMES IN CHAPTER 24 Cultural Diversity Science and Technology Immigration and Migration Constitutional Concerns CHAPTER World War Looms 24 HOME “This nation will remain a neutral nation, but I cannot ask that every American remain neutral in thought as well.” President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, August 24, 1939

  3. What do you know? • • What do you already know about World War II? • Have you ever discussed World War II with someone who lived through it? If so, what did he or she say? • • What do you know about dictators in the Soviet Union, Italy, Germany, and Japan? How do you think they attained power? • • What do you already know about the Holocaust? How have you seen it portrayed in movies, books, and television? CHAPTER World War Looms 24 HOME

  4. 1935Congress passes the first Neutrality Act. 1937President Roosevelt delivers his anti- isolationist “quarantine” speech. 1941The United States enters the war after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. President Roosevelt signs the Lend- Lease Act, and U.S. industry begins mass production of war material. CHAPTER Time Line 24 HOME The United States

  5. 1931Japan invades Manchuria. 1933Hitler becomes chancellor of Germany. 1935Mussolini invades Ethiopia. 1936The Spanish Civil War begins. Germany occupies the Rhineland. 1937Japan invades China. 1938Germany annexes Austria. 1939Germany invades Poland, starting World War II. The Nazis begin to convert labor camps into extermination camps. 1940Britain and Germany fight the Battle of Britain. Japan, Germany, and Italy sign pact. 1941Germany invades the Soviet Union. Japan attacks Pearl Harbor. CHAPTER Time Line 24 HOME The World

  6. Learn About the rise of totalitarian dictatorships in Europe and Asia. To Understand the challenge they posed to the U.S. policy of neutrality. SECTION 1 Dictators Threaten World Peace HOME

  7. SECTION 1 Dictators Threaten World Peace HOME Key Idea The United States remains isolated from world affairs as economic and political factors lead to the rise of nationalist leaders in the Soviet Union, Germany, and Italy.

  8. Section 1: Dictators Threaten World Peace • Nationalism Grips Europe and Asia • Postwar years brought the rise of powerful dictatorships driven by the belief in nationalism and dreams of territorial expansion • Seeds of new conflict had been sown in WWI • Failures of the WWI Peace Settlement (Treaty of Versailles) • Democracy fails in Europe • Weimar Republic: the democratic government set up in Germany after WWI • People turned to authoritarian leaders to solve their economic and social problems

  9. Joseph Stalin Transforms the Soviet Union • Joseph Stalin takes over after the death of Lenin • Abolished all privately owned farms and replaced them with collectives: large government-owned farms • Transformed the Soviet Union from a backward rural nation into a great industrial power • By 1937 worlds second largest industrial power behind USA • Stalin’s purges • Stalin eliminated anyone who threatened his power • Responsible for 8-13 million deaths • Totalitarian government: government maintains complete control over its citizens • Individuals have no rights, and the government suppresses all opposition

  10. Time Magazine Feb. 6, 1933

  11. The Rise of Fascism in Italy • Benito Mussolini: established a totalitarian regime in Italy • Fascism: stressed nationalism and placed the interests of the state above those of individuals • Power rests with a single strong leader and a small group of devoted party members • 4 Factors led to the rise of Fascism in Italy • Italians pride was hurt • Rising inflation • Unemployment • Social unrest

  12. The Nazis Take Over Germany • Adolf Hitler: established a totalitarian regime in Germany • After WWI Hitler was a jobless soldier drifting around Germany • In 1919 he joined a struggling group known as the Nazis Party • Hitler stated his beliefs in his book called “Mein Kampf” (my struggle) these beliefs became the plan for the Nazi’s • Nazism: the German brand of fascism which was based on extreme nationalism • Hitler dreamed of uniting all German-speaking people in a great German empire

  13. Hitler-Nazis rise to power Cont… • Hitler also wanted to enforce racial “purification” in German • Form a “master race” or “Aryan race” • “inferior races” were deemed to serve the Aryans • 3 Key Ideas that Hitler presented in Mein Kampf • Reunite all Germans • Germans were a master race and all other races were inferior • Germany needed more living space • Great Depression helped the Nazis come to power • 1932 Nazis become the strongest political party • 1933 Hitler appointed Chancellor • Hitler dismantled Weimar Republic and established the Third Reich

  14. Militarists Gain Control in Japan • Military leaders take control of Japan • Extreme nationalism • Attack China (Manchuria) in 1931 • Japans needs living space and resources for its people • Success of the Manchurian invasion put the militarists firmly in control of Japan’s government • League of Nation • Established after WWI to prevent aggressive acts • Japan leaves the League of Nations • Hitler and Stalin are watching very closely

  15. Aggression in Europe and Africa • In 1933 Hitler pulls out of the League of Nation • 1935 Hitler began a military buildup in violation of the Treaty of Versailles • 1936 Hitler sent troops into the Rhineland: a German region bordering France and Belgium that was demilitarized as a result of the Treaty of Versailles • The League of Nations does nothing to stop Hitler • Mussolini invades Ethiopia in 1935 • League of Nations responded with an ineffective economic boycott

  16. Civil War Breaks Out in Spain • In 1936 Francisco Franco and other Spanish army officers rebelled against the Spanish republic resulting in Civil War • Hitler and Mussolini backed Franco’s forces with troops, weapons, tanks, and fighter planes • The war forged a close relationship between Hitler and Mussolini • Signed a formal alliance known as the Rome-Berlin Axis • Franco’s victory established him as Spain’s fascist dictator

  17. The United States Responds Cautiously • Isolationism: believe that America should not interfere in other nations affairs • 3 Factors contributed to Americans growing isolationism • Evidence that large profits had been made by banks and arms industries during WWI • Regret over having been involved in WWI • Hatred of militarism • Roosevelt was an advocate of isolationism in his first term (1932-1936) • Neutrality Acts: outlawed arms sales or loans to nations at war or in a civil war • Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act: lowered trade barriers by giving the presidents the power to make trade agreements with other nations and reduced tariffs by 50% • In 1937 Roosevelt sees that it is going to be impossible to remain Neutral • 1937 Japan launched another offensive on China • Roosevelt found a way around the Neutrality Act b/c Japan did not official declare war on China • This is the beginning to Roosevelt going away from isolationism

  18. Ambitions of European Dictators Stalin Mussolini Hitler SECTION 1 Dictators Threaten World Peace HOME 1 Section Assessment SUMMARIZING What were the main ambitions of European dictators Stalin, Mussolini, and Hitler? To create a model Communist state and to transform the Soviet Union into a great industrial power To make Italy a greatworld power To unite the German“master race” into an empire destined to rule the world

  19. ANALYZING CAUSES How did the Treaty of Versailles sow the seeds of instability in Europe? THINK ABOUT • effects of the treaty on Germany and the Soviet Union • effects of the treaty on national pride • the economic legacy of World War I SECTION 1 Dictators Threaten World Peace HOME 1 Section Assessment

  20. ANALYZING MOTIVES Why do you think Hitler found widespread support among the German people? THINK ABOUT • Germans’ postwar resentment and bitterness • Germany’s economic situation before Hitler’s rise to power • the appeal of Hitler’s Nazi beliefs SECTION 1 Dictators Threaten World Peace HOME 1 Section Assessment

  21. Learn About the weak response of world leaders to Hitler’s aggressive moves in the late 1930s. To Understand how Germany started World War II. SECTION 2 War in Europe HOME

  22. SECTION 2 War in Europe HOME Key Idea A series of bold moves by Adolf Hitler—and weak countermoves by other leaders—triggers World War II in Europe.

  23. Section 2: War in Europe • Austria and Czechoslovakia Fall • Majority of Austria’s 6 million people were Germans who favored unification • Sudetenland: western border regions of Czechoslovakia • Hitler accused the Czech's of abusing the Sudeten Germans • France and Great Britain promised to protect Czech • War seemed inevitable until Hitler invited French premier Daladier and British prime minister Chamberlain to Munich • Hitler declared this to be his “last territorial demand” • Munich Agreement: turned the Sudetenland over to Germany without a single shot fired • Appeasement: giving up principles to pacify an aggressor • Winston Churchill: Chamberlain’s political rival in Great Britain • Did not agree with appeasing Hitler


  25. The German Offensive Begins • 1939 German troops took the rest of Czech and turn towards Poland • Most people didn’t believe Hitler would invade Poland • Poland was on Russia’s eastern border • France and Britain had declared military support to Poland • Two-front war • The Soviet Union Declares Neutrality • Stalin surprised everyone when he signed a nonaggression pact: commitment never to attack each other • Two countries also signed a secret treaty to divide Poland in half • Some Historians say this was smart of Stalin • With the danger of a 2 front war eliminated the fate of Poland was sealed

  26. Blitzkrieg in Poland • September 1939 Germany released newest military strategy • Blitzkrieg: lightning war • Used fast tanks and powerful aircraft to take the enemy by surprise and then quickly crush all opposition with overwhelming force • Britain and France declare war on Germany • Blitzkrieg defeated Poland in three weeks • Russia invaded Poland from the east • By the end of September Poland ceased to exist and WWII had begun • Phony War: Next several months was a stalemate • April 1940 Hitler invaded and took over Denmark and Norway in order to attack Britain • Stalin invades and takes over Finland

  27. France and Britain Fight On • Maginot Line: a system of fortifications built along France’s eastern border that was occupied by French and British troops • Germany bypassed the Maginot Line by going through the Ardennes: a region of wooded ravines that the British and French though impassible • German tanks were able to get through and moved to Paris • The Fall of France • German forces rolled through France • Italy joins the war and attacks France from the South • Charles de Gaulle: a French general who fled to England • Set up a French government in exile • Map on Page 744

  28. The Battle of Britain • Summer of 1940 German assembled an invasion fleet along the French coast • Germany could not compete with British Navy • Launched an air war along with a Navy battle • Every day for 2 solid months the Germans bombed Britain airfields, aircraft, and cities • Britain’s Royal Air Forces (RAF) fought back • New technological device called radar was critical in keeping the Germans from taking Britain

  29. Germany’s invasion of Poland signing of the Munich Pact Hitler’s annexation of Austria signing of the nonaggression pact SECTION 2 War in Europe HOME 2 Section Assessment FOLLOWING CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER In what sequence did the following events occur: Germany’s invasion of Poland, Hitler’s annexation of Austria, signing of the nonaggression pact, signing of the Munich Pact? EVENT 2 EVENT 4 EVENT 1 EVENT 3

  30. SYNTHESIZING To what extent do you think lies and deception played a role in Hitler’s tactics? THINK ABOUT • William Shirer’s diary entry about headlines in the Nazi newspapers • Soviet-German relations • Hitler’s justifications for military aggression SECTION 2 War in Europe HOME 2 Section Assessment

  31. MAKING DECISIONS If you had been a member of the British House of Commons in 1938, would you have voted for or against the Munich Pact? THINK ABOUT • Hitler’s credibility • the British public’s fear of being involved in another war • Churchill’s opinion of the appeasement policy SECTION 2 War in Europe HOME 2 Section Assessment

  32. Learn About Hitler’s plans for the German “master race”. To Understand the fate of Jews and other “enemies” of the Third Reich. SECTION 3 The Holocaust HOME

  33. SECTION 3 The Holocaust HOME Key Idea Hitler’s plans for conquering the world include the killing of Jews and other ethnic groups, which is carried out with frightening determination and success.

  34. Section 3: The Holocaust • The Persecution Begins • Holocaust: the systematic murder of 11 million people • 1935 Nuremberg Laws: stripped Jews of their citizenship, jobs, and property…Jews had to wear Star of David • Kristallnacht: Nov. 9-10th 1938 “Night of Broken Glass” • Nazis attacked Jewish homes, business, and synagogues • Nazis tried to speed up Jew emigration • Most countries did not let Jews in…bad economy and not enough jobs already • St. Louis: German boat carrying 943 passengers were not allowed to enter USA…more than half of these passengers would be killed

  35. Hitler’s Final Solution • Final Solution: a policy of genocide: the deliberate and systematic killing of an entire population • SS (Security squadrons): Hitler’s special death squads who rounded up Jews and often times shot them on the spot • Jews were also forced in ghettos: segregated Jewish areas in certain Polish cities….Nazis sealed off the ghettos with barbed wire and stone walls

  36. Concentration Camps • Concentration Camp: a prison camp in Nazi Germany in which Jews and other groups considered to be enemies of Hitler were starved while doing slave labor or were murdered • Families were often separated for life • Inmates worked from dawn to dust, seven days a week until they collapsed…when they were too tired to work they were killed • Intense hunger • Lived with rats and fleas

  37. The Final Stage • 1942 Murder by Poison Gas • Mass Exterminations • As deadly as overwork, starvation, beatings, and bullets were they did not kill fast enough • 6 death camps were built where 12,000 people could die in a single day • Auschwitz: the largest death camp • Others died as a result of medical experiments • Injected with deadly germs in order to study the effect of disease on different groups of people • Survivors of the Camps were few

  38. ANALYZING CAUSES What were at least four events that led to the Holocaust? CAUSES EFFECT the removal of non-Aryans from government jobs Nuremberg Laws stripping Jews of their civil rights and property The Holocaust Kristallnacht—Nazi storm troopers’ attack on Jewishhomes, businesses, and synagogues “final solution”—systematic genocide of Jews, gypsies, and other groups that Nazis considered “subhuman” SECTION 3 The Holocaust HOME 33 Section Assessment

  39. SUPPORTING OPINIONS Do you think that the United States was justified in not allowing more Jewish refugees to emigrate? Why or why not? THINK ABOUT • the views of isolationists in the United States • some Americans’ prejudices and fears • the incident on the German luxury liner, St. Louis SECTION 3 The Holocaust HOME 33 Section Assessment

  40. DEVELOPING HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Why do you think the Nazi program of systematic genocide was so brutally effective? THINK ABOUT • the long German history of anti-Semitism • the secrecy and lies told by the Nazis • the scope and organization of the Nazis’ genocidal plans SECTION 3 The Holocaust HOME 3 Section Assessment