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World War Looms

World War Looms

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World War Looms

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  1. World War Looms Chapter 24

  2. Problems after world war i • Treaty of Versailles • Economic unrest/depression • Rise of dictators • Solve problems through war

  3. Joseph Stalin (USSR) • Replaced Lenin (1924) • Collectivization of Agriculture (large-government-owned farms) • 5 year Economic Plans turn USSR into 2nd largest industrial power by 1937 • Totalitarian Police State (complete control over people, no rights, no opposition) • Purges (1930’s): eliminate all threats/enemies • 1920’s/30’s: responsible for 20+ million dead • Figures range from 20-60 million deaths in the Stalin era

  4. Benito Mussolini (Italy) • Il Duce (the leader) • Fascist/Totalitarian state • Nationalism • Militarism • Charismatic leader • Allow private property • Anti-democracy & communist

  5. Hideki Tojo/military • Emperor Hirohito (figurehead) • Nationalism • Expansionism • Living space • Resources

  6. Adolph Hitler (Germany) • Der Fuhrer (the leader) • National Socialist German Workers Party (NAZI): 1919 • Symbol: swastika • Fascist/totalitarian state • Mein Kampf (My Struggle) • Aryans: master race • Inferior races: Slavs, non-whites who serve the Aryans • Jews: non-humans that are to be eliminated • Lebensraum: living space to the east for Germany

  7. January 30, 1933: Hitler appointed Chancellor • How are the Nazis elected? • Hitler is excellent public speaker • Tells groups what they want to hear • Violence and intimidation against opposition • Anti-Treaty of Versailles • Economic troubles addressed • Nazis pass laws establishing totalitarian state

  8. Hitler Speech • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZuMajt-qooE

  9. Axis aggression/actions leading up to world war II

  10. Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) • Fascist Francisco Franco (Germany/Italy) vs. Anti-Franco Republicans (Western Democracies/USSR) • Franco wins and Spain becomes a fascist state • Positive for Germany • Luftwafe and military gain fighting experience • Chance to test blitzkrieg tactics • Negative for Germany • Spain does not join Germany during the war

  11. Japan invades Manchuria (1931)/declares war on China (1937) • Resources & Land • Brutal war with over 20 million Chinese civilian deaths • Rape of Nanking/Japanese atrocities in the Pacific

  12. Austrian Chancellor Kurt von Schuschnigg • Refused Nazis in his government • Germany annexed Austria • March 12, 1938 (Anschluss-Union)

  13. Munich Pact: September 30, 1938 • Hitler, Mussolini, Neville chamberlain (Britain), Edouard Daladier (France) • Sudetenland, Czechoslovakia (3 million German speaking people) • Given to Germany • Hitler claimed it would be his last territorial demand

  14. Winston Churchill (Britain) • Policy of appeasement: giving in to satisfy an aggressor • March 1939: Germany take the rest of Czechoslovakia

  15. August 23, 1939: German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact • Germany can avoid a two-front war • Secret agreement to divide up Poland

  16. September 1, 1939: Start of World War II • Germany Invades Poland • Blitzkrieg (Lightning War) • Airpower, tanks, motorized infantry used in a surprise, massive attack • Avoid trench warfare • Poland falls in 3 weeks

  17. May 10, 1940: Germany Invades France • Schlieffen Plan (WWI)/Blitzkrieg through Ardennes Forrest • Drive to the English channel and trap 400,000 allied troops at Dunkirk • Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium invaded and fall • Hitler’s mistakes at Dunkirk: • Uses planes not tanks • Become cautious • Over 300,00 troops evacuated (main part of British army)

  18. June 21, 1940: France Surrenders • Germany occupies northern/western/coastal France • Vichy France: puppet government in southern France led by Marshal Petain • Free French led by Charles de Gaulle continue to fight

  19. Battle of Britain (Aug. 1940-Jun. 1941) • Invasion problem for Germany (Operation Sea Lion) • Must make amphibious landing against British navy and Royal Air Force (RAF) • Hitler begins air war against British (Germany has more planes/pilots) • Why British win battle? • Use of radar • Hitler begins bombing British cities not military targets (The Blitz)

  20. Air War • Allied strategic bombing of Axis powers (B-17 Flying Fortress) • Germans use V1 & V2 rockets • Germany develops the first jet plane (ME 262) but it comes too late to impact the war

  21. Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Pact signed (September 1940)

  22. Presidential Election 1940 • Democrats: FDR • Republicans: Wendell Willkie • FDR wins and breaks the 2 term tradition

  23. Operation Barbarossa (June 22, 1941) • Three German armies invade USSR • Targets: Leningrad, Moscow, Stalingrad • Russians use scorched earth policy (fall back and destroy everything the Germans could potentially use) • Hitler’s mistakes: • Keeps changing objectives • Not prepared for winter • Fails to use non-Russians (Ukrainians, etc.) thus forcing these people to help Russia

  24. United States to Pearl Harbor • 3 Neutrality Acts for isolationists (1930s) • First peacetime draft in US history (1940) • Lend-Lease Act (1941) support countries vital to our defense • Atlantic Charter (1941): war goals of US/Great Britain. Sets up United Nations.

  25. December 7, 1941: Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor • US knows about an attack, but do not think that it will be Hawaii • Over 2,400 killed; most from USS Arizona • Japanese mistakes • Miss 3 US carriers • Fail to destroy repair docks & oil storage facilities

  26. Holocaust:systematic murder of 12 million people • 6 million Jews & 6 million others (Russians, Slavs, Gypsies, etc.) • 1.5 million children and 2/3 of European Jews

  27. Why Primarily the Jews? • Small minority in Germany • History of Anti-Semitism in Europe (Diaspora) • Target/Blame for all of Germany’s problems

  28. Why did German Citizens allow this to Happen? • Benefit from anti-Jewish policies • Afraid/Intimidation by Nazis • Most Germans were not Nazis, but feared their power/retaliation • Indifference

  29. Holocaust Timeline • 1930s: German euthanasia program to purify German race • 1930s: concentration camps established for the elimination of opposition & undesirables (Dachau- first one in 1933) • 1933: Nazis encourage Jewish emigration, but anti-Semitism & economic depression prevents many from leaving • 1935: Nuremberg Laws (Jews lost citizenship, jobs, & property. Could not marry non-Jews, must wear the Star of David)

  30. Timeline Continued • 1938: Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass) November 9th • Nazis attack Jews • 20,000 Jews sent to concentration camps • Jews fined one billion marks (German currency) for damages

  31. Timeline Continued • 1939: Germany acquires land/people to the east • Ghettos: Jews forced into small areas of occupied cities. Many die from conditions or intentionally killed. Used for slave labor and later deported to death camps. • Mass Shootings: used to eliminate undesirables • Slow & inefficient • Waste of resources • Psychologically destroys soldiers • January 20, 1942: Wannsee conference • Nazis develop and carry out the Final Solution to the Jewish problem

  32. Gassing • Specifically designed vans • Slow, small, and waste of fuel • Extermination Camps (6 in Poland) • Large showers using Zyklon –B cyanide gas • Extermination Process: • Deportation: shipped by railroads like cattle to death camps • Arrival: able-bodied are used for slave labor and the rest are sent to gas chambers • Possessions: everything confiscated and used by Nazis (most items sent back to Germany) • Disposal: mass graves or crematories

  33. Movie Clips • Gas Chamber • Liquidation of Ghettos part 1 • Liquidation of Ghettos part 2 • “I’ve got to make room”

  34. Hitler’s mistake: waste of men and resources when trying to fight a war • Nuremberg War Crimes Trial (November 22,1945 to October 1, 1946) • Top 22 Nazis tried for war crimes against humanity by Allied Powers • 3 acquittals, 7 prison terms, 12 death sentences

  35. International Military Tribunal: Far East • Top 25 Japanese leaders tried except Emperor Hirohito • 18 prison terms, 7 death sentences • War Crimes Trials • Numerous held in Europe & Asia by the Allies • Around 500,000 convictions