Section 1: Road to War • During the 1920’s, Adolf Hitler became very popular in Germany, appealing to people’s anger and suffering.
Mein Kampf(My Struggle) • “He who wants to live must fight, and he who does not want to fight in this world, where eternal struggle is the law of life, has no right to exist.” Adolf Hitler
One Vote Changed History • Hitler promised a better life, describing a glorious future to people humiliated by losing the war.Once Hitler gained political power, he became a dictator, a person who controls their nation by force.
Benito Mussolini • Like Germans, Italians felt they had been wronged by the Treaty of Versailles. Mussolini made fascism-extreme nationalism and racism- popular in Italy.
In 1936, Mussolini sends troops to invade Ethiopia.The Ethiopian emperor, HaileSelassie begged the League of Nations of help. The League responded by banning trade in weapons and certain other materials to Italy.
Reflect for a moment… • Why do you think Mussolini would invade and take over an African country?
Japan • As European states are angry with their government’s ability to stabilize the economy, Japan became frustrated with their government as well. Japan’s military leaders rose to power and invaded Manchuria in September 1931.
Soviet Union • Joseph Stalin became the leader of the Soviet Union during the late 1920’s until March 5, 1953. He has the record of being the most murderous and and powerful dictator in human history.
Hitler’s Agenda of Domination • March 1936 Rhineland • March 1938 Austria • September 1938 Munich Conference • March 1939 Sudentenland/Czechoslovakia • August 1939 Soviet-German Non-Aggression Pact
Hitler established a totalitarian form of government in Germany, executing anyone he suspected of disloyalty or treason.
Pictoword • Appeasement- policy used by European leaders to avoid another war with Germany by giving Hitler what he asked for. Create a pictoword that would describe, “appeasement.” For example, esclation
Section 2: War Begins • September 1, 1939 Hitler sent his troops into Poland, two days later, Britain and France declare war on Germany, World War II had begun.
The War Expands • Preparing to defend themselves against Germany, Britain and France build heavy fortifications along France’s eastern border called the Maginot Line.
Allied Nations • Great Britain • France • U.S. • China • Soviet Union-after Hitler breaks his non-aggression pact with Stalin
Axis Powers • Germany • Italy • Japan
1940 Election Reflection • FDR wins a third term as President, breaking the tradition set by George Washington for serving two terms only. He promised, “Your boys are not going to be sent into any foreign wars.” How does he break his promise after the election? Should he have kept it? Why or why not?
Sunday, December 7, 1941 • 7:55 A.M. Japanese kamikaze pilots, and subs attacked Pearl Harbor, Hawaii where 8 battleships were sunk or damaged, 350 planes destroyed, and 2,402 Americans were killed. Half of those were on the USS Arizona.
Rich man’s war, poor man’s fight? • FDR asked Congress to declare war on Japan, the Axis Powers then declare war on the U.S. for declaring war on Japan, then Congress also declares war on Germany and Italy. Who should be fighting, the leaders who declare war or the citizens of that country? Explain.
Section 3 On the Home Front • For the first time, women served in the military in clerical jobs or nurses. About 250,000 women served in the WAC (Women’s Army Corps) and WAVES Women Appointed for Volunteer Emergency Service in the Navy).
Rosie the Riveter Propaganda poster that encouraged women to take factory jobs
African Americans During the War • About one million African American men and women served in armed forces during the war. Most units were segregated at first but leaders begin to integrate so that by 1942 the Army is training Whites and African Americans together in officer candidate school. • The Tuskegee Airmen or the 332nd Fighter Group are credited with shooting down more than 200 enemy planes.
Tuskegee Airmen Goals • Aim High • Believe in Yourself • Use Your Brain • Never Quit • Be Ready to Go • Expect to Win
A United Cause • Native Americans are remembered for their service, especially at Iwo Jima where a special group of Navajo formed known as, “code talkers.” Because the Japanese were not familiar with the Navajo language, they were never able to decipher their messages. • Hispanic Americans also served in the armed forces. Because of the need for war time labor, the U. S. recruited thousands of farm and railroad workers from Mexico. Twelve Mexican Americans received the highest military medal, The Medal of Honor for their service.
Financing the war efforts • The Revenue Act of 1942-taxes income • Borrowed money by selling war bonds • Corporate taxes
Citizens Sacrificing for the Cause • Family members leaving home to serve in the military all over the world. • Shortages at home to supply our military caused the gov’t to ration certain items such as gas, shoes, tires, meat and sugar.
Reflection • Write in your journal three reasons for what you think created the spirit of unity in the U.S. during this time?
Section 4 War in Europe and Africa • Allied troops were successful in the North African campaign to remove the Germans by November 1942 preventing the Germans from capturing and controlling the Suez Canal.
Focus turns to Italy and Germany • Once regained, the Allied Forces can now use North Africa to set up bases in order to plan military attacks against southern Europe. By June 1944, Rome is liberated. • Air raids had begun as early as the summer of 1942 over Germany. American bombers are destroying factories and cities daily. • Although 30,000 Germans had died, they would not surrender. Why do you think the Germans kept fighting?
V.E. Day • By mid-April 1945 the Soviets had surrounded Berlin. Hitler had taken shelter in an underground bunker finally realized he had lost, committed suicide on April 30th. Germany signed an unconditional surrender on May 7th. Allies declare May 8th Victory in Europe.
Death of FDR • Roosevelt does not live to see the surrender of Germany. He had gone to Warm Springs, Georgia to a hot springs treatment center when he suddenly died on April 12, 1945. • Vice President Harry Truman is sworn in as the new President.
The Holocaust • As Allies liberated people who had been under German control they discovered evidence of Nazi brutality. German leaders had developed a plan called the final solution to the Jewish question by using genocide, or the killing of a group of people based on their ethnicity.
Section 5 War in the Pacific • Island Hopping Campaign was used by General Douglas MacArthur and Admiral Chester Nimitz regained islands the Japanese had captured in the Pacific region. They used these islands as bases to help their advances against the Japanese.
General MacArthur commander of Allied forces in the Pacific Admiral Nimitz
The Atomic Bomb • Manhattan Project-top secret government project to develop the first atomic bomb. • Harry Truman warns the Japanese if they did not surrender they would face, “prompt and utter destruction.” • Japan refused to surrender so Truman ordered the bomb to be used. • August 6, 1945 an American bomber, the Enola Gay, dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, three days later another bomb was dropped on Nagasaki.