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World History Chapter 26 World War II

World History Chapter 26 World War II

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World History Chapter 26 World War II

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  1. World History Chapter 26 World War II

  2. Chapter Objectives • Identify the steps taken by Germany & Japan that led to the beginning of World War II • Describe the successes of Germany & Japan in the early years of the war

  3. Chapter Objectives • List the major events of the last years of the war • Explain the causes & results of the Holocaust

  4. Chapter Objectives • Explain the conditions of the peace settlement & the ways in which the peace settlement led to the Cold War

  5. The Impact Today • By the end of World War II, the balance of power had shifted away from Europe. • Germany & Japan’s search for expanded “living space” is comparable to nations fighting over borders today.

  6. The Impact Today • Atomic weapons pose a threat to all nations.

  7. Section 1: Paths to War

  8. I. The German Path to War • Adolf Hitler • Aryan race was superior to all other races & nationalities • needed more land to support a larger population • land in the east - in the Soviet Union

  9. Poster, c/ 1938, which proclaims “One People, one State, on Leader!” After becoming dictator in 1933, Hitler often held large rallies to inspire the loyalty of Germans

  10. Land to support a larger population.

  11. I. The German Path to War • Slavic peoples could be used as slave labor to build the Third Reich

  12. A. The First Steps • Germany wished to revise the unfair provisions of the Treaty of Versailles by peaceful means • Hitler created a new air force & began a military draft • This was a direct violation of the Treaty of Versailles

  13. A. The First Steps • In the midst of the Great Depression, France, Great Britain & Italy were distracted by their own internal problems • 1936, Hitler sent troops into the Rhineland, the demilitarized area

  14. Rhineland France

  15. A. The First Steps • Great Britain did not support the use of force against Germany • Thus began a policy of appeasement

  16. A. The First Steps • appeasement - the belief that if European states satisfied the reasonable demands of dissatisfied powers, the dissatisfied powers would be content & stablitiy & peace would be achieved in Europe

  17. B. New Alliances • Benito Mussolini • Fascist Italy invaded Ethiopia • 1936, Germany & Italy sent troops to Spain to help General Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War

  18. B. New Alliances • New alliance between Italy & Germany, called the Rome-Berlin Axis • Germany & Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact, promising a common front against communism

  19. C. Union with Austria • 1937, Hitler proclaimed his plans of Anschluss, or union, with Austria, his native land • 1938, Hitler annexed Austria to Germany

  20. Maps and Charts 1a

  21. D. Demands & Appeasement • Nov. 1938, Hitler demanded the Sudetenland, an area in northwestern Czechoslovakia that was inhabited largely by Germans • German troops were allowed to occupy the Sudetenland

  22. http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/education/bitesize/higher/img/history/roadwar/munich/sudetenland_1938.gifhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/education/bitesize/higher/img/history/roadwar/munich/sudetenland_1938.gif

  23. D. Demands & Appeasement • The Czechs, abandoned by their Western allies, stood by helplessly • Munich Conference, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, boasted the agreement meant “peace for our time”

  24. http://homepage.eircom.net/~finnegam/war/munich_conference.jpghttp://homepage.eircom.net/~finnegam/war/munich_conference.jpg

  25. “peace for our time”

  26. E. Great Britain & France React • March 1939, Hitler invaded Bohemia & Moravia in western Czechoslovakia • Hitler’s aggression had made clear that his promises were worthless

  27. E. Great Britain & France React • Hitler began to demand the Polish port of Danzig, Great Britain offered to protect Poland in the event of war • France & Britain began political & military negotiations with Joseph Stalin, the Soviet dictator

  28. F. Hitler & the Soviets • To avoid a two-front war, Hitler made his own agreement with Stalin • August 1939, Germany & the Soviet Union signed the Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact

  29. http://www.historynet.com/pod/0822_l.jpg

  30. F. Hitler & the Soviets • On September 1, 1939, German forces invaded Poland • Two days later, Britain & France declared war on Germany

  31. II. The Japanese Path to War • 1931, Japanese soldiers seized Manchuria, which had natural resources Japan needed • Japan renamed Manchuria, Manchukuo

  32. II. The Japanese Path to War • By the mid-1930’s militants had gained control of Japanese politics

  33. A. War with China • Chiang Kai-shek sought to appease the Japanese by allowing it to govern areas of Northern China

  34. A. War with China • 1936, Chiang ended his military efforts against the Communists & formed a new united front against the Japanese • By 1937, the Japanese seized the Chinese capital of Nanjing

  35. B. The New Asian Order • Japanese military leaders wanted Chiang to join a New Order in East Asia, comprising Japan, Manchuria & China • Japan also planned to seize Soviet Siberia with its rich resources

  36. B. The New Asian Order • Japanese became interested in the raw materials in Southeast Asia to fuel its military machine • The United States objected & threatened to apply economic sanctions - restrictions intended to enforce international law

  37. B. The New Asian Order • Japan badly needed the oil & scrap iron it was getting from the United States • Japan was now caught in a dilemma

  38. B. The New Asian Order • Japan decided to launch a surprise attack on the U.S. & European colonies in Southeast Asia Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941

  39. Section 2: The Course of World War II

  40. I. Europe at War • Blitzkrieg, “lightning war” German’s attack on Poland used armored columns, called panzer divisions, supported by airplanes • Blitzkrieg broke quickly through Polish lines, within four weeks Poland had surrendered

  41. http://www.geocities.com/shadow_bitten/Wermacht/blitzkrieg.jpghttp://www.geocities.com/shadow_bitten/Wermacht/blitzkrieg.jpg

  42. I. Europe at War • On Sept. 28, 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union divided Poland

  43. A. Hitler’s Early Victories • After a winter of waiting (called the “phony war”), on April 9, 1940, Hitler attacked Denmark and Norway • One month later Germany attacked the Netherlands, Belgium and France