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Chapter 26 - World War II

Chapter 26 - World War II

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Chapter 26 - World War II

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  1. INDEPENDENT STUDY:DUE IN 45 mn) • Read Lesson 26.1 – (p. 752-755) • Complete Guided Reading Review • Read Lesson 26.2 – (p. 758-763) • Complete Guided Reading Review • WHILE WE VIEW – UNFINISHED NATION – BETWEEN THE WARS OR PANDORA • NOTES & DISCUSSION • QUIZ END OF HOUR GRADED Chapter 26 - World War II

  2. EQ: Discuss the reactions of the U.S. to world events leading up to and in the early years of WWII. OBJ: ID and describe the causes of the rise of totalitarian regimes in the 1930's and the events leading to WWII with the reaction of the US. Describe the importance of the Atlantic Charter. Explain the significance of the attack on Pearl Harbor. Section 1 The Rise of Dictators

  3. Italy • Benito Mussolini rose to power by appealing to Italians who thought they did not win enough in the Treaty of Versailles. • By 1922 his fascist government- extreme nationalism and racism, forced the King of Italy to declare Mussolini the head of government

  4. Mussolini • Ends democracy in Italy • B/G’s forced into army/war material production • Vowed to regain glory of Romans • 1935: invades African Nation of Ethiopia. • Ethiopia begs help of League of Nations. • It banned trading weapons w/Italy, but couldn’t enforce. • May 9, 1935: Italy Annexes Ethiopia • "It is us today. It will be you tomorrow." (Emperor of Ethiopia, Geneva, Switzerland, June 30, 1936) “The Mediterranean will become and Italian Lake!”

  5. Extreme Nationalism: • Ethnic Superiority: • Individual Rights: • Brain Washing Youth. • The State = Living Organism. • Expand Or Die. • People Are Cells. • “Social Darwinism”. • Individual subordinate state. • You exist to serve country. • Teach Only Fascist • Doctrine. What Is Fascism? ORIGIN: Italy, 1922 BENITO MUSSOLINI: Founded first fascist political group; later allied his country with Germany in World War II. Mussolini took the title ‘Il Duce’ (The Leader).

  6. 5. Political Parties. • 6. Civil Rights: • Religion, Minorities, Labor Unions: • Industry & Property: • 9. Secret Police: • 10. Cultural Overhual: What Is Fascism? • Only one allowed • None: • Repressed • Allowed • Controled for military • Weeds Out Opposition • Control recreation, athletics, arts & culture

  7. FASCISM SPREADS IN EUROPE1928 to 1940 What Factors Allowed Fascism To Grow In Germany?

  8. Rise of Hitler & Troubled Post-WWI Germany • Unstable Government: • First Time In A Democracy • Commies & Fascist Battle for Control • Treaty of Versailles: • Industry Was Dismantled • Anger Over “War Guilt Clause” • Angry Over Rhineland Occupied By French. • Defenseless – No Army – Only National guard • Country Split Up – Terr Lost • Reparations – Would Take 3 Generations to Pay Back • Great War Conspiracy – someone gave up! • Overseas Colonies – Lost.

  9. Rise of Hitler & Troubled Post-WWI Germany Economy: Fearful-Angry People: • LOSSES FROM VERSAILLES • 13 per cent of territory, • 10 per cent of population, • 15 per cent of arable land, • 75 per cent of iron • 68 per cent of zinc ore, • 26 per cent of coal • 100% potash /textile industries, • Huge amounts • Ships/shipping facilities • railway rolling-stock 1. Massive Inflation 2. Unemployment 3. Riots/Protests 4. Cripple by War/Reparations 5. World wide depression. 1. Conspiracy to End WWI 2. Humiliated By Treaty of Versai 3. Bad Economy 4. Starvation 5. Fear of Communist Takeover

  10. Hyper-Inflation in Germany:1923

  11. Rise of Hitler Ctd… • With the German republic failing, Hitler took advantage of the suffering of the people of Germany • He promised a better life for Germans, a realistic goal that only he could achieve. • He was a dramatic public speaker, and crowds would gather to listen to him discuss how he would end inflation and create jobs.

  12. The Nazi Party • 1921, Hitler became Chairman of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party, or the Nazi Party. • Openly racist - declared Germans superior to all races. • He blamed many of Germany’s problems toward many races, but especially the Jews.

  13. 1933: The German Reichstag Burns • Nazis Blame It On A Communist Arrested For Starting The Fire. • Hitler Declares That • It Is A Communist Revolution! • Asks Parliament To Give Him Dictatorial Power To Squash It. • Passes By One Vote

  14. HitlerVideo Overview -NAZI PARTY BELT BUCKLE- BEFORE HITLER TAKES POWER GOD PARTY FATHERLAND

  15. HitlerVideo Overview -NAZI PARTY BELT BUCKLE- AFTER HITLER TAKES POWER “He who wants to live must fight, and he who does not want to fight in this world where eternal struggle is the law of life, has no right to exist.” HITLER A CULT OF PERSONALITY PARTY FATHERLAND

  16. 1936, Spanish RevolutionCommunists Trying To Overthrow King of Spain & The Nationalists A TESTING GROUND FOR BLITZKRIEG WARFARE • Hitler Sends Weapons/Advisors To Assist Against Communists • Practice New “Blitzkrieg” Warfare

  17. TESTING THE ALLIES Rhineland • March, 1936: Rhineland Re-Occupied • Hitler’s Army Marches In-Breaks Versaille Treaty

  18. September, 1938: Sudetenland SUDETENLAND • Hitler Claims Germans there being mistreated • Threatens Invasion • CZECH read for war! • BR & FR Say OK. • Hitler…Promises To Demand No More.

  19. Sudetenland: The Shaded Horse Shoe CZECHOSLOVAKIA

  20. Munich Pact : September 29, 1938. HITLER IS GIVEN PART OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA WAS CZECHOSLOVAKIA CONSULTED? NO! Praises Britain's Munich Pact with Germany British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain Adolph Hitler Was Hardly Conciliatory

  21. Munich Pact : Annex to the Agreement What Might Happen If Germany Is Opposed With Force By Britain & France? ANOTHER WORLD WAR & A COMMUNIST GERMANY

  22. March, 1939: Czechoslovakia CZECHOSLOVAKIA • Hitler’s Forces March Into Czechoslovakia • Last Democratic Gov’t In East Europe Gone

  23. March, 1938: Austrian Anschluss (union) AUSTRIA • Allow For Peaceful Unification of GR & AU “or we will crush you”. • Nazi Forces March Into Germanic Austria.

  24. FACTORS ALLOWING FASCISM Costs of WWI Great Depression prblems at home. Reluctance To Start A War. Belief In Isolation – Ability –Doesn’t Affect Us. Policy of Appeasement Weak League of Nations Fear of Communism Spreading!

  25. JAPAN: A Modern - Dynasty • Society: • Very Strict Class System • Warrior Tradition • Military Held Great Power

  26. Emperor Hirohito: "emperor of heaven" • Leadership: • more a symbol of the state than ruler. • not blameless in • the war • a pawn of militarists who gained control of government. • HIROHITO BECAME • EMPEROR AT AGE 15 General MacArthur and Emperor Hirohito standing side by side during their historic first meeting on September 27, 1945 after the surrender of Japan.

  27. JAPAN: Growing-Industrializing • Defense Philosophy: • Best Defense- Good Offense • Desperate for Space!: • Population Exploding • Need Resources! • To Build Industry / Military • Effect of Depression? • Less $ • = Less Industry • = Less Military • Essential Materials: • Oil / Rubber / Iron / Minerals • Fears Of Military Leaders: • Keep Up With Rest of World / Enemies • Lose Influence • What Are The Options? • Take Control Of Gov’t – Take It How does geography limit or put Japan @ disadvantage? Today: Slightly Smaller Than California About 125 Million People

  28. Great Depression Japan • Frustration w/gov’t • no solutions to economic problems. • 1931: Japan attacks Manchuria • province in NE China • League of Nations condemned attack • JP leaves L of N’s • Pres Hoover stays out!

  29. Japan and Asia • JP Sets Up Gov’t in MAN • Then moves Sand took over more land • Take more territory FR Indochina • rubber and oil! • 1940 - AXIS ALLIANCE: JP signs alliance W/ GR & IT

  30. Who Owns The Phillipines?

  31. Joseph Stalin and Communist Russia • Late 1920’s: • Joseph Stalin became leader of USSR • demanded complete obedience fr. people • Executed (purged) 1000’s of his rivals • sent millions of Russians to Labor camps. Stalin – “Man of Steel”

  32. 1930’s Isolationism & American Neutrality • US Was…. • Angry about Versailles Treaty • Had A large war debt. • Owed money by Allies.. Who were not paying. • Concluded WWI was a conspiracy of BIG BUSINESS!

  33. Nye Committee Hearings(1934-1936) • SENATE INVESTIGATION CHARGES • WW I was needless • U.S. Entered For [“merchants of death.”] • CONCLUSIONS: • bankers wanted war to protect loans /arms manufacturers to make money. • Wilson provoked GR sailing in warring nations’ waters. • RESULT: • Congress passes Neutrality Acts. Senator Gerald P. Nye [R-ND]

  34. Neutrality Acts: 1935, 1936, 1937 • When the President proclaimed the existence of a foreign war, certain restrictions would automatically go into effect: • Prohibited sales of arms to belligerent nations. • Prohibited loans and credits to belligerent nations. • Forbade Americans to travel on vessels of nations at war [in contrast to WW I]. • Non-military goods must be purchased on a “cash-and-carry” basis  pay when goods are picked up. • Banned involvement in the Spanish Civil War. • This limited the options of the President in a crisis. • America in the 1930s declined to build up its forces!

  35. FDR’s “I hate war” Speech (1936) 1937: FDR Warns The World “Quarantine The Aggressor Speech” http://www.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/real.html

  36. Hitler and Stalin • Hitler and Joseph Stalin of Russia were bitter enemies • Hitler despised the idea of Communism • Hitler needed however, to find a way to invade Poland, without angering the new Giant Soviet Union, which bordered Poland to the East

  37. Soviet-German Pact • The Soviet-German Non aggression pact was signed in 1939. • This shocked the rest of Europe, for now they could not use the huge Soviet Union as an ally against Germany. • Germany invaded Poland on September 1st 1939.

  38. Spring, 1939: Hitler-Stalin Pact • Sign A Non-Aggression Pact • Agree To Split Poland.

  39. SEPTEMBER 1, 1939WWII Begins • Hitler (Germany) Invades Poland • Stalin (USSR) Invades Eastern Poland & Finland. • BRITAIN & FRANCE DECLARE WAR!

  40. Section 2 World War II Begins

  41. U.S. Response to Invasion of Poland • FDR Calls Emergency Session of Congress • Persuades Congress to Pass - 1939 Neutrality Act • sell weapons / “cash-and-carry” only. • FDR could ban US ships/citizens from “danger zones” • Results: • Aggressors can’t buy US munitions. • US economy improved • US becomes “Arsenal of Democracy.”

  42. War in Europe • France and England declared war on Germany once Germany invaded Poland • The German attack was swift and fierce • Germany’s war philosophy was called a Blitzkrieg or “lightning war”. • The Soviet Union attacked eastern Poland, and added it to their territory

  43. German and Soviet Expansion • BR / FR Declare War Immediately! • could not help POL defeat too quick. • Stalin took advantage • Forced - Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia to accept soviet military bases • Finland Refused – Stalin Attacked! • APRIL 1940: Denmark & Norway Invaded

  44. Germany Continues West • SPRING 1940 Germany turned and attacked The Netherlands and Belgium. The two countries immediately asked for help from the allies – Great Britain and France • After terrible bombing raids, the dutch and the people of Belgium were overrun

  45. AFTER POLAND BELGIUM & HOLLAND IMMEDIATELY DECLARED NEUTRALITY. IT WOULD NOT SAVE THEM. MAY 1940: Belgium, Luxembourg, and Holland

  46. After WWI France Built a Defensive Wall: The Maginot Line Can you locate it? What is its weakness? JUNE 1940: France Is Invaded

  47. British Retreat 30 miles to Britain • BR Forces In Full Retreat • Trapped At Dunkirk: • 800 ships – warships, ferries, fishing boats, sent to rescue • MAY 26, 1940: 'Operation Dynamo‘ • 300,000+ troops evacuated to safety. • Big Mistake Hitler!

  48. Fall of France • ON June 14th, 1940, German troops marched into Paris. • France surrendered a week later • in 6 months almost all of Western Europe had fallen to the German Blitzkrieg.

  49. Summer 1940 - Britain Remains • Great Britain was the final Western Europe nation that had not fallen to Hitler • The Germans unleashed an aerial assault, bombing British shipyards, industries, and cities, including destroying entire neighborhoods in London, and killing many civilians • Hitler wanted to break the British morale before invading

  50. R.A.D.A.R Helps to Win The Battle of Britain Summer 1940