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Chapter 12 – World War II

Chapter 12 – World War II

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Chapter 12 – World War II

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  1. Chapter 12 – World War II • #6 Impact of WWII

  2. Essential Question: What was the impact of World War II on the United States and the world? Warm-Up Question: Why was Truman’s decision to use atomic bombs so important?

  3. Total War on the Battlefront

  4. World War II

  5. Total War – What was its impact? • As with WWI, World War II used total war tactics: • On the battlefront, blitzkrieg tactics were used, cities were firebombed, kamikaze attacks & atomic bombs were used • On the homefront, gov’ts used propaganda, conscription, rationing, & raised money to win the war

  6. Hitler used a new “lightning war” tactic called blitzkrieg that relied on using strong attacks by air raids & tanks to take over new territories Unlike WWI, WWII was not a war of attrition in Europe; these battle lines moved

  7. Germany bombed London in the & Japan attacked Pearl Harbor In August 1945, the USA dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima & Nagasaki The Allies used napalm to firebomb Dresden, Germany & Tokyo, Japan

  8. Total War on the Homefront

  9. Buy, Buy, Buy, Buy a Bond:It Will Lead to VICTORY! War bonds helped raise $187 billion to support the war effort

  10. The Costs of WWII

  11. End of the War in Europe • USA, England, Russia met twice before WWII ended to discuss the reconstruction of Europe after the war: • Yalta Conference (Feb 1945) • Potsdam Conference (July 1945)

  12. Yalta Conference • In February 1945 (while the war was still being fought), the “Big Three” Churchill (England), Roosevelt (USA), Stalin (USSR) met in Yalta, USSR to discuss Europe after WWII • This is FDR’s last meeting (died in April 1945)

  13. Yalta Conference • At Yalta, the Allies discussed: • The Axis Powers must unconditionally surrender • The League of Nations should be replaced by a United Nations to keep the peace after the war • Germany would be divided into occupied zones to help rebuild • Eastern European nations have the right to choose to be democratic or communist Self Determination

  14. Potsdam Conference (Stalin, Truman, Churchill)US President FDR died in April & VP Harry Truman became the new President

  15. Stalin broke his promise at Yalta & began pressuring Eastern European countries to become Communist Potsdam Conference • After Germany surrendered, the USA, England, & USSR met at Potsdam, Germany to discuss the end of the war • Two important things happened

  16. Potsdam ended any sense of friendship between the USA & USSR & began an era of bitterness & distrust called the Cold War At Yalta, Stalin agreed to allow self-determination in Eastern Europe Potsdam Conference Germany was divided into 4 occupied zones: 3 were democratic & 1 was communist By Potsdam, Stalin had extended his control over Eastern Europe to create a buffer zone between the USSR & its future enemies Potsdam presents a major Cold War theme: Because they could not agree on how do govern Europe, Truman & Stalin divided it

  17. Potsdam Conference • President Truman was told that the atomic bomb was ready • Truman issued the “Potsdam Declaration” & told Japan to unconditionally surrender OR face "prompt & utter destruction"

  18. The Effects of World War II

  19. The U.S., U.S.S.R, England, France, & Nationalist China made up the Executive Council Each member of the Executive Council has veto power over other members The creation of the United Nations An army! All 50 member nations were represented on the General Assembly

  20. Cold War • When the World War II finally ended, 2 superpowers remained: US & USSR • USA—capitalist & democratic; USSR— communist • Different beliefs led to a Cold War & a fight for supremacy throughout the world VS

  21. Group Challenge • Let’s see how much you know about WWI and WWII. • In groups, brainstorm to come up with as many similarities and differences as you can think of between WWI and WWII. • Make sure that they are significant, but be as comprehensive as possible…you are competing against the other groups!

  22. Some Key Similarities • Total war: Draft, rationing, war bonds, victory gardens, government direction of the wartime economy (WIB vs WPB), limitations on liberties • Women work doing “men’s jobs” in factories • Segregated units for African American soldiers; Great Migration • League of Nations was in existence

  23. Some Key Differences • More African American soldiers fought; Great Migration WEST • Japanese internment camps • Fighting in Europe AND the Pacific • Trench warfare vs. blitzkrieg • Atomic bombs used • 6 million women JOINED the workforce • 1st peacetime draft • United Nations replaced the L of Nations

  24. WWII Discussion • Some historians consider WWII to be a continuation of WWI. • Do you agree with that assessment? Why or why not? • It has been argued that the events of WWII caused the Cold War. • Do you agree with that assessment? Why or why not?