World War I Chapter 18 Notes
Objectives: • Identify the causes of the war. • Identify the major Alliances. • Describe trench warfare & new technology used in this war & discuss its impact. • Identify turning points/battles. • Identify & evaluate reasons for US involvement in World War I.
Causes of the War: • Competition b/w countries: • Nationalism --Militarism • Imperialism • Yrs. of instability in the Balkans • Overlapping ethnic & religious groups • Austria-Hungary & Serbia competing over control of Bosnia
Spark: • Assassination of Archduke F. Ferdinand of Austria by Serbian nationalist GavriloPrincip • Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
The assassin: GavriloPrincip ***VIDEO!
Europe divided: Triple Entente (Allied Powers) • Serbia • Russia • France • Britain • Italy (1915) • United States (1917)
Allied Powers (Triple Entente) George V [Br] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Nicholas II [Rus] Pres. Poincare [Fr]
Europe divided: Triple Alliance (Central Powers) Austria-Hungary Germany Ottoman Empire Bulgaria
Central Powers (Triple Alliance) Wilhelm II [Ger] Franz Josef [A-H] Enver Pasha[Turkey]
Schlieffen Plan • Germany hoped to defeat France quickly by attacking from Belgium & cut-off Britain from the rest of Europe, then go after Russia
Central Powers’ Strategy: • Schlieffen Plan: • First Battle of Marne: • Schlieffen Plan fails • French are out gunned by Germans • Both sides dig in; War reaches stalemate
Trench Warfare: • Both armies dug & occupied trenches for hundreds of miles • Rats, lice, unburied bodies, flooding, sickness & disease
Trench warfare: • No man’s land—thin strip of bombed out land b/w trenches filled w/ barbed wire & land mines
New Weapons/ Technology: • Machine guns • Tanks • Poison gas • Submarines • Airplanes
Real Flying Aces FrancescoBarraco, It. Eddie “Mick”Mannoch, Br. Eddie Rickenbacher, US Manfred vonRichtoffen, Ger.[The “RedBaron”] Willy Coppens deHolthust, Belg Rene PaukFonck, Fr.
Important Battles: • First Battle of the Marne major German offensive • Battle of Gallipolli * • Battle of Verdun--Longest battle of the war; most casualties • Battle of the Somme--1st offensive for Br.; known for high casualty rate • Second Battle of the Marne--last German offensive (poor attempt); final offensive of the war • Battle of Argonne Forest-- heavy American casualties; American success
US Neutrality • Wilson issues declaration of neutrality • Americans see war as a European problem • Tradition of isolationism • Privately US favors Allied Powers • Economically US does more business w/ Allied Powers
Events leading to U.S. involvement in WWI: • Brit. Intercepting & searching U.S. ships • German U-boat attacks • Arms trading w/ Allies • Zimmerman Note • Lusitania
Opposition to War: • Quakers • Mennonites • Rep. Jeannette Rankin & Sen. Robert LaFollette, Jane Addams • Socialist Party
Let’s Review: • What were the causes of World War I? • What were the 2 major alliances? Who made up each alliance? • How was the war fought? • What was some of the new technology used in World War I? • What were some of the major turning points in the war? • How did the US come to be involved in World War I?
Objectives: • Describe how America mobilizes for war. • Discuss how women’s roles changed during the war. • Analyze how the war impacted the civil liberties of American citizens.
Selective Service Act:required men aged 21-30 to register w/ local draft boards Pros: Cons: Segregated units Blacks limited in the positions they could serve Conscientious objectors rejected • Build more democratic country by uniting a variety of people • Indian citizenship (1924)