World War I Chapter 19
Bell ringer • What event started World War I?
World War I Begins • Main Idea: • As WWI intensified, the United States was forced to abandon neutrality. • Many Americans wanted to stay out of the war. But after much debate, Congress voted in favor of U.S. entry into WWI. • With this decision, the government abandoned the neutrality that America had maintained for 3 years.
Causes of WWI • Four main factors contributed to the outbreak of WWI. • 1. Nationalism • 2. Imperialism • 3. Militarism • 4. Alliance
Nationalism • “A devotion to the interests and culture of one’s nation.” • Often nationalism leads to competitive rivalries btw nations. • During the 19th century, tensions grew as nations pursued their own interests. What country was most of Europe fearing? Explain Russia’s role as a “protector”.
Imperialism • Define: • Rivalries increased as nations competed for power around the world. • These colonies supplied European imperial powers with raw materials and provided a market for manufactured goods. • Which countries were in competition?
Militarism • “The development of strong armed forces to back up and defend their growing empires.” • By 1890, the strongest nation in Europe was Germany. Germany had set up an army reserve system that drafted and trained young men. • At the time, who was the strongest naval power? What did Germany do?
Alliance System • “A series of treaties grouped the nations of Europe into two armed camps.” • Triple Entente (Allies): France, Britain, Russia • Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. • These alliances provided a measure of international security because nations were reluctant to disturb the balance of power.
An Assassination Leads to War • In June, 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne, visited the Bosnian capital, Sarajevo. • Serbian nationalist and “Black Hand” member, GarviloPrincip shot and killed Archduke Ferdinand and his wife Sophie. • The assassinations created a diplomatic crisis. On July 28th, AH declared war on Serbia.
Continued… • The Alliance system that had been developed complicated the war. • This alliance system pulled one nation after another into conflict. • On August 1st, Germany declared war on Russia. • August 3rd, Germany declared war on France • After Germany invaded Belgium, England declared war on Germany.
The Fighting Starts • Schileffen Plan: On August 3rd, Germany invaded Belgium. This plan called for a holding action against Russia. • German troops swept through Belgium to Paris. After France had fallen, the two German armies would defeat Russia.
Fighting in WWI • As armies continued to fight at the Marne River in France, a fighting tactic developed. • Trench warfare: The armies had created two parallel systems of deep, rat infested trenches that crossed France and went to the Swiss Alps.
Trench Warfare • There were three kinds of trenches: • 1. Front line • 2. Support • 3. Reserve • Soldiers spent a period of time in each trench. • Dugouts/Underground rooms were used as “command posts” or “officer quarters”. • BTW the trenches was “no man’s land”—a barren expanse of land that soldiers feared to enter.
Trench Warfare • Trench warfare, in which armies fought for mere yards of land continued for over 3 years. • This type of warfare was horrific and unsanitary • There was about 1.2 million causalities total.
Think, Pair, and share • Define “Trench Warfare”. • What do you think about this style of fighting? • Would you be capable of fighting this way? Why or why not.
America Questions Neutrality • In 1914—most Americans saw no reason for the U.S. to join the war. At this point, there were no threats to American land or property. • Although most Americans did not support the U.S. entering the War, they did have opinions on who would win the war. However these views were very split.
Divided Loyalties • Socialist: • Criticized the war as a capitalistic and imperialist struggle btw Germany and England. • Pacifist: • William Jennings Bryan: pg.583 • Believed the war was evil and that the U.S. should set an example of peace to the world.
Divided Loyalties • Millions of naturalized U.S. citizens followed the war, because they still had deep rooted ties to the nations from which the emigrated. • Ex: Many German Americans sympathized with Germany, many Irish Americans saw the war as a chance for Ireland to gain independence. • On the other hand many Americans felt close to Britain because of a common ancestry and language as well as similar legal systems. • Many Americans also referred to Germany as “the bully of Europe” because the Germans attacked civilians, destroyed villages, churches, libraries, and even hospitals.
Continued… • Most importantly, America’s economic ties with the Allies were far stronger then their ties with the Central Powers. • Prior to the war, Americas trade with Britain and France was more than double its trade with Germany. • As the war raged on, America’s transatlantic trade continued to boost the local manufacturers because of all the orders for war supplies: dynamite, cannon powder, submarines, copper wire, armored cars. • The U.S. had shipped million of dollars of war supplies to the Allies, but orders kept coming and by 1915, the U.S. was experiencing a labor shortage.
Discussion Stop • How would you have felt? Would you have wanted the U.S. to go to war? Why or why not.
The War Hits Home • Even though most Americans did not want to end the war, by 1917, America had mobilized for war against the Central Powers for 2 reasons: • 1. To ensure Allied repayments of debts to the U.S. • 2. To prevent the Germans from threatening U.S. shipping.
The War Hits Home: British Blockade • As most fighting continued to occur on land, the British utilized their naval strength. It blockaded the German coast to prevent weapons, food and other military supplies from getting in. • This blockade caused 2 results.
Results • 1. American ships carrying good for Germany refused to challenge the blockade and seldom reached their destination. • 2. Germany found it increasingly difficult to import foodstuffs and fertilizers for crops. • By 1917, famine stalked the country, around 750,000 Germans starved to death due to the blockade. • Americans had been angry at the Britain's because this blockade threatened freedom of the seas and prevented goods from getting to Germany.
German U-Boat Response • Germany responded to the British blockade with a counter-blockade by U-boats. • Unterseeboot, is the German word for Submarine. • Any ship found in the waters around Britain would be sunk and the crew would not always be notified.
German U-Boat Response • May 7th, 1915 a German U-Boat sank the British liner, Lusitania off the southern coast of Ireland. • 1,198 people were lost—128 were Americans. • The Germans defended their attack on the grounds that the ship was carrying ammunition. • Despite Germany’s explanations, Americans were outraged with Germany. • Due to this event, the Americans outlook on Germany turned quickly.
Continued… • Despite the ill attitude towards the Germans, President Wilson ruled out Military response in favor of a sharp protest against Germany. • 3 months later, the Germans sank another British liner, the Arabic—killing 2 Americans. • Again, the U.S. protested and this time Germany promised to not sink any more passenger ships.
Continued… • But, in March, 1916, Germany broke its promise and torpedoed an unarmored French passenger steamer, the Sussex. • About 80 passengers including Americans were killed or injured. • Again, the U.S. threatened to cut off diplomatic relations unless Germany changed its tactics. Germany agreed, but there was 1 condition: • “If the U.S. could not convince Britain to life its blockade against fertilizer and food, Germany would consider renewing unrestricted submarine warfare.
1916 Election • November 1916 the U.S. Presidential Election came. • Who was nominated, who won? Why?
The United States Declares War • President Wilson spoke before Senate on January 1917 in regards to the warring allies. He called for: “A peace without victory…a peace between equals,” in which neither side would impose harsh terms on the others. • Wilson hoped that all nations would join a “league of nations”, which would strive to extend democracy, maintain freedom of the seas, and reduce armaments.
German Provocation • The Germans ignored Wilson’s calls for peace and instead hoped to defeat Britain by resuming unrestricted submarine warfare. • On January 31st Germans announced that U-Boats would sink all ships in British waters—hostile or neutral—on sight. This STUNNED Wilson. • This German decision meant the U.S. would have to go to war. • But still the President held back saying that he would wait for “Actual overt acts” before declaring war.
Think, Pair, and Share • What do you think—should the U.S. have gone to war yet? Why or Why not. • Do you agree with the President’s tactics? Why or why not.
The Zimmermann Note • Was a telegram from the German foreign minister to the German ambassador in Mexico that was intercepted by British agents. • The telegram proposed an alliance btw Mexico and Germany and that if war with the U.S. broke out, Germany would support Mexico in recovering “lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.” • The 2 other acts were:
America Acts • On April 2nd 1917: Wilson delivers his speech: pg. 586 • Congress passed the resolution a few days later. • Wilson and many Americans believed that the U.S. had to join the war to pave the way for a future order of peace and freedom.
Section 2: American Power Tips the Balance • The United States mobilized a large army and navy to help the Allies achieve victory.
America Mobilizes • The U.S. was not prepared for war. At this time, there was only about 200,000 men in service when war was declared. • In order to prepare, the U.S. launched a draft and quickly put about 3 million men in uniform!
Raising an Army • Selective Service Act: Congress passed this act and it required men to register with the government in order to be randomly selected for military service. • By the end of 1918—24 Million men had registered under the act. • Of this number, about 3 million men were called up.
Raising an Army • About 400,000 African Americans served in the armed forces. • They served in segregated units and were excluded from the Navy and Marines. • Most were assigned to noncombat duties. • The all-black 36th Infantry Regiment saw more continuous duty on the front line than ANY other American regiment.
Raising an Army--Women • Women were not allowed to enlist. • But, the Army reluctantly accepted women in the Army Corps of Nurses. • They were denied any army rank, pay, and benefits. • But, 13,000 women accepted noncombat positions in the Navy and Marines where they served as nurses, secretaries, and telephone operators—with full Military Rank
Training • Soldiers followed an 8 month training period. • It took place in the U.S. and Europe. • The men put in 17 hour work days—target practice, bayonet drills, kitchen duty, and cleaning the grounds. • Real weapons were in short supply, so soldiers often drilled with fake weapons. • Rocks as grenades. • How do you think this effected fighting?
Think, pair, and share • If you were 18 during this time how would you feel about the draft? • Boys: Would you want to go and fight? Even if you had zero training? Why or why not. • Girls: How would you have felt not being allowed to serve? Would you have signed up for other positions? Why or why not. • What would you do now if our country implemented a draft system?
Mass Production • The U.S. needed to find a way to transport men, food, and equipment over thousands of miles of ocean. • 1st: Government exempted many shipyard workers from entering the draft. • 2nd: U.S. Chamber of Commerce joined in a public relations campaign to emphasize the importance of shipyard work. • Flags • 3rd: Shipyards used prefabrication techniques. Instead of ships being built in the ship yard, parts were built elsewhere and then assembled in the shipyard. • 4th: Government took over commercial and private ships and converted them for transatlantic use.
Results • As a result of these policies, in just ONE day on July 4th, 1918—the U.S. launched 95 ships!
America Turns the Tide • German U-Boat attacks on Merchant ships in the Atlantic were a serious threat. • American Vice Admiral William S. Sims convinced the British to try the “convoy system”. • A heavy guard of destroyers escorted merchant ships back and forth across the Atlantic in groups. • By the fall of 1917, shipping losses had been cut in half.
Fighting “Over There” • American Expeditionary Force: AEF was led by General John J. Pershing. • This unit included men from widely separated parts of the county. • They were nicknamed “dough boys” why?
New Weapons • The Battlefields of WWI saw the first large scale use of weapons that would become standard in modern war. • New weapons included: • Machine guns, tanks, and gas warfare. • Newest form of warfare: • Air Warfare • Pg. 590
War Introduces New Hazards • Along with new weapons and tactics of WWI led to horrific injuries and hazards. • The fighting men were surrounded by filth, lice, rats, and polluted water. • They inhaled poisonous gas, smelt decaying bodies, and suffered from lack of sleep. • Constant boredom led to “shell shock”. • 48,000 men died in combat another 62,000 died from disease.
American Troops Go on the Offensive • Russia pulled out of the war in 1917 at this point the Germans shifted their armies from the eastern front to the western front in France. • The U.S. entered the war just in time to help stop the German advance in Cantigny, France. • The Americans helped win two major battles in France which alarmed the Central Powers.
American War Hero • Alvin York • Who was he? • What is he known for?
Collapse of Germany • On November 3, 1918 Austria-Hungary surrendered to the Allies. • That same day, German sailors mutinied against government authority. • This mutiny spread quickly—everywhere in Germany groups of soldiers and workers organized revolts. • On November 9th, socialist leaders in Berlin, established a German republic.
Continued… • Although there were no Allied soldiers on German territory and no truly decisive battle had been fought, the Germans were too exhausted to continue. • On the 11th hour, on the 11th day, in the 11th month of 1918 Germany agreed to a cease fire and signed an armistice that ended the war.