Green Chemistry Rhiannon Bennett
Green Chemistry follows a set of 12 Principles in order to avoid the use or generation of hazardous substances. • It is used in industrial production to prevent pollution and to minimise effect on the environment. What is green chemistry?
Prevent waste – It is better to prevent waste than to clean it up later. • Design safer chemicals – Design chemicals that are more suited to their desired function, and minimise toxicity. • Find safer ways to make synthetic products – Design methods of synthesis that minimise toxicity and harm to human health and the environment. • Maximise atom economy – Design methods that incorporate most materials used in the process, into the final product. • Use safer solvents - Minimise use of auxiliary substances. 12 principles of green chemistry
6. Use renewable reactants – Use of renewable reactants should be used wherever possible, rather than ones that deplete. • Maximise energy efficiency – Minimise energy requirements where possible. • Avoid chemical derivatives – Avoid unnecessary derivatives, which creates extra waste. • Use catalysts whenever possible – Catalytic reagents are superior to stoichiometric reagents. • Design biodegradable products – Create products that easily break down in nature, rather than ones persist. • Use real-time analysis to prevent pollution – Further develop methods that allow for “real-time” monitoring and control of hazardous chemicals. • Minimise the potential for accidents – Be safe and avoid risky chemicals or behaviour .
The BHC Company created and implemented a greener industrial synthesis of ibuprofen. • The traditional synthesis of ibuprofen was designed in the 60’s and involves 6-steps and creates large quantities of waste chemical by-products. • Large amounts of waste • Poor atom economy • The company’s new process involves only 3-steps. It incorporates most of the materials into the final product, thus lessoning the amount of waste. Case study:The BHC Company
http://www.epa.gov/sciencematters/june2011/principles.htm • http://www.greenchemistrynetwork.org/pdf/Principles.pdf • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stoichiometry • http://www.scheikundeinbedrijf.nl/content/Modules/Modulenaam/Files/case.pdf Bibliography