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The Arab Israeli Conflict. Camp David Accords 1978. BACKGROUND Israel had control of the Sinai Peninsula (6 Day War) President Sadat (Egypt) & President Begin (Israel) secretly meeting Sadat was the first Arab leader to ever visit Israel (recognizing them as legitimate state
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Camp David Accords 1978 • BACKGROUND • Israel had control of the Sinai Peninsula (6 Day War) • President Sadat (Egypt) & President Begin (Israel) secretly meeting • Sadat was the first Arab leader to ever visit Israel (recognizing them as legitimate state • Really upsets the rest of the Arab world • Jimmy Carter initiates peace talks
Peace in the Middle East Fully implement UN Resolution 242 Autonomous self-governing state in West Bank and Gaza “Associated Principles” Egyptian/Israeli Peace Treaty Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula Normal diplomatic relations with Egypt: Use of the Suez Canal and limited Egyptian forces in the Sinai Peninsula Terms of Agreement
Perception of Egypt in Arab world shifts Sadat assassinated in 1981 Egypt not allowed in Arab League from 1979-1989 No longer a united Arab front Egypt’s status leaves room for a new Arab country to rise to power: Who? Realization that negotiations are possible What Happens Next?
Intifada I 1987-1990 Against Israeli occupation Civil Disobedience Israeli Defense Force kill over 1,000 Palestinians Intifada II 2000-? Ariel Sharon visits Al-Aqsa Mosque Demonstrators protest Unarmed Palestinians are killed (sets off cycle) US criticized for not stopping Israel The Intifadas
Oslo Accords 1993 • BACKGROUND • Israeli PM Yitzhak Rabin (Israeli Left) negotiates with PLO leader Yasser Arafat
Israeli Forces withdrawal from Gaza and West Bank Palestinian right to self-government in these areas Creation of Palestinian Authority (PA)* Palestinian rule for 5 years and then reassess *Factor in Palestinian Opposition (PO) to emerge ex. Hamas Terms of Agreement
Deliberately Excluded Issues • Jerusalem • Refugees • Israeli Settlements • Security and Borders
1994 process supposed to start Israeli Right upset Rabin assassinated in 1995 Camp David Summit 2000 (Clinton, Arafat, Ehud Barak) considered a failure Intifada ongoing during this time Sharon elected PM in 2001 (Likud Party) All processes come to a halt Violence and suicide bombers escalate between 2000-2003 What Happened?
Ariel Sharon (Israeli Right) PM in Israel Mahmoud Abbas PM for Palestinians Where Are We Today?
Quartet: US, UN, European Union, and Russia Bush first US President to explicitly call for Palestinian state PA must implement democratic reforms and renounce terrorism Israel must recognize autonomy of Palestinians in disputed areas Ongoing violence has threatened progress Israel’s Security Wall Roadmap to Peace
The Gaza Strip • Israel’s military forces pulled out in August • Gaza first or Gaza only? • Talks again have come to a halt
Homework • Writing Exercise 1 page • What is the Arab Israeli Conflict about, why hasn’t there been a workable solution, and is there one? • Things to think about while writing: Where does the blame lie? Was the situation inevitable? Why or why not? • Please use evidence from your reading and lecture to write!