Writing a script • A broadcasting script is less formal than a newspaper article • A newspaper article is written to be read, while a script to written to be heard • You should have a teaser, an introduction, a lead, a segue to the video clip, narration (when needed) for the video clip and an outro • Avoid big words, but look for words that grab people’s attention
Video clips • Video clips should be relevant and interesting • Don’t let the highlights go too long or too short • Don’t be afraid of natural sound (cheering crowd) • Let the pictures tell the story • Get the story on the air • Make sure the style of editing matches the tone of the story • When done correctly, the editing should complement the photography
Active voice • Always use active voice, particularly the “to be” verb • Passive: The game was over by halftime • Active: The Lakers ended the game by halftime
Getting started • What is your objective? • Who is your audience? • How much time do you have? • Do you want to inform, persuade or entertain them? • What tools will you be using?
The room • Where is your broadcast taking place? • Know the acoustics of the room • Know the location of cameras and guests • Is there the potential for any outside distractions? • The more familiar you are with the environment, the better off you will be
Know your audience • Find out the following about your audience: age, cultural background, professional background, gender, educational background and any issues or frustrations they may face on an average day • What movies have they watched? • What music do they listen to? • Relate to them, but don’t try to be someone you are not • Should your broadcast be formal or informal?
Know your audience • The more you know about the audience, the better off you will be • Try to have casual off-air interaction with your audience to see beyond demographics • How would they react if the White Sox fired Ozzie Guillen? • Is Brian Urlacher truly beloved by everyone?
The content • If you are not familiar with the content, you will likely shows signs of being uncomfortable • Make sure that you understand the content • Be prepared for the audience to challenge your knowledge of the topic • Try to avoid any words or phrases that you might stumble over • Practice makes perfect
The equipment • Will you be using any audio/visual elements? • Have you used them before? • If not, be sure to practice so that you are comfortable during your presentation • Make sure that anything you use compliments what you are trying to convey • Make sure that any audio/visuals you use are not a distraction
Acoustics • Know the acoustics of the room • Try to avoid a monotone delivery • Will everyone be able to hear you? • Speak in a loud, clear voice • A loud voice is a proud voice • A soft voice will cause the audience to doubt your authority on the subject matter
Murphy’s Law • Murphy’s Law states that “anything that can go wrong, will go wrong” • Be prepared for the unexpected • What if someone unplugs the cord for the microphone? • What if your notes are out of order? • Can you overcome these obstacles and still deliver an effective broadcast?
Other tips • Do not drink soda or any kind of juice • Be flexible with your script; what if you only have two minutes to get through a six-minute broadcast? • Stay focused; the audience (sports talk radio) might try to divert you with irrelevant questions and comments • Act like you want to be there; if it is painful for you to talk, it is painful for the audience to listen
Voiced sounds • The sounds in which voice is used are called voiced sounds, but some speech-sounds are made with the vocal cords in the wide open position, and are therefore voiceless (or breathed) • In fact the English v and f are made in exactly the same way, except that one is voiced and the other voiceless • Cover your ears and utter a v, then an f
Nasal sounds • In a vowel sound voice is switched on and the mouth cavity is left unobstructed, so that the air passes out freely • Try saying the vowels with your mouth open • Now try saying the consanants with your mouth open • If the nasal passage is also opened, we get a nasal sound like those of French bon, “good,” and brun “brown,” but for English vowels the nasal passage is normally closed, though some American speakers habitually leave the door ajar and speak with a nasal twang
The tongue • The quality of a vowel is determined by the position of the tongue, lower jaw and lips, because these can change the shape of the cavity that the air passes through and different shapes give different resonances • The tongue is the most important • If we raise part of our tongue, we divide the mouth passage into two cavities of different sizes, one at the back and one at the front
The position of the tongue • To describe any vowel, we specify the position of the highest part of the tongue: we can do this in terms of its height • Three categories: open, half-open and closed
Before going on camera • Carry a compact mirror with you to make sure nothing is out of order (e.g., food in your teeth) • Rinse your mouth out with mater • Go to the bathroom • Make sure all of your notes are in order • Write out and rehearse your intro, outro and transitions
Preparing your voice • Say: “Why ask what’s with the weather on Wednesday when it’s only Tuesday” • When driving or other times when you are alone, sing along to songs so that your vocal chords get stronger • Enunciate every syllable • Drink tea when your vocal chords feel sore