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10 th American History

10 th American History

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10 th American History

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  1. 10th American History U.S. Foreign Policy History

  2. Vocabulary for the Word Wall • Foreign Affairs (Policy): • Foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how a particular country will interact with the other countries of the world. Foreign policies generally are designed to help protect a country's national interests, national security, ideological goals, and economic prosperity. • Creating foreign policy is usually the job of the head of government and the foreign minister (State Department) • International Relations

  3. Imperialism • Economic reasons- international trade and need for raw materials from Asia, Africa and Latin America • Military reasons- to defend their shores and protect their trade interests • Ideology • 1- Nationalism- enhancing a nation’s power and prestige. • 2- Cultural superiority- Social Darwinists believed in this. Social responsibility to “civilize” less developed countries.

  4. Imperialism • Manifest Destiny- expand westward to the Pacific, and beyond the shoreline • Hawaii- trade, sugar, bayonet constitution and annexation • China-trade, Treaty of Wanghia 1844- gave U.S. most favored nation status, Sphere’s of Influence, Open-Door Policy and Boxer Rebellion • Japan-trade, Commodore Matthew Perry, and the Treaty of Kanagawa.

  5. Spanish American War • Cuban Unrest • Yellow Journalism • Reasons- • Maine Explosion- “Remember the Maine” • De Lome Letter • U.S. Sugar interests • U.S. sympathy to the rebel cause and the evil Spanish • Jingoes (Hawks) and the pressure on President McKinley • Outcome • Teller Amendment on Cuban Independence and Rough Riders and San Juan Hill • U.S. receives Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam and Philippines in exchange it gives Spain $20 million. • U.S. now has over seas territories, bases for trade and navy. • Annexation of Philippines and three years of revolution. (Independence in 1946) • Anti-Imperialist League 1898- imperialism is a violation of the foundation of American self government. • Platt Amendment- Cuba (Guantanamo, Protectorate); Foraker Act 1900- Puerto Rico.

  6. T.R. Roosevelt, Taft and Wilson • Roosevelt and Latin America • Walk softly and carry a big stick • Great White fleet • Helping Panama to get independence • Building the Panama Canal • Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine • Taft’s Dollar Diplomacy • Promoting American interests in other countries • Using economic power to achieve American policy goals. • Wilson’s Moral Diplomacy • Rejection of dollar diplomacy • Use of persuasion and American ideals to advance the nation’s interest abroad. • Wilson and the Mexican Revolution • President Wilson would not recognize the de facto government of Gen. Huerta • Wilson used armed force against Mexico in Veracruz and against Poncho Villa • Rise of tariffs

  7. U.S. and the Panama Canal • U.S. interest in the Canal • Offering Columbia $10 million and $250,000 annually. Rejected • Panama’s revolution against Columbia • Building the Canal

  8. World War I • “M.A.I.N.E.”- European causes for the war. • U.S. neutrality • Reasons for the U.S. entrance into the war. • America in World War I • America in Post World War I • Wilson’s fourteen points • Treaty of Versailles • League of Nations • Impact of World War I

  9. 1st Red Scare • Communist revolution in Russia- 1917 and the rise of the Bolsheviks • Fear of the “Reds”- communists who promoted the violent overthrow of the U.S. government. • U.S. Communist parties formed • Bombings- through the mail. • Palmer raids – deportation and incarceration.

  10. Lingering Effects of World War I • War Debts owed to the U.S. • $10 Billion owed by Allies to U.S. • Fordney-McCumber Tariff made repayment hard. • Reparation payments by Germany • Washington Naval Conference- 4 Power, 5 Power and 9 Power treaties. • Agreement to cut back on size of navies • Avoid competition for China • Ending the Arms Race and establishing Peace? • Kellogg-Briand Pact- high ideals- Peace signed by 60 nations. But no system of enforcement, just a promise.

  11. Effect of Great Depression on World • Fragile European Economies still recovering from WWI.

  12. World War II • Isolationism, Pacifism, and Neutrality Act • Roosevelt’s Quarantine Speech • Cash and Carry • Lend-Lease • Atlantic Charter • Attack on Pearl Harbor • Mobilization

  13. World War II • U.S. in World War II- European Theater • Atlantic • North Africa • Europe • Holocaust • V-E Day and Nuremberg Trials • U.S. in World War II- Pacific Theater • Island Hopping and Gen. Douglas MacArthur • Yalta conference • Potsdam conference • President Truman and the Atomic Bomb • V-J Day.

  14. Cold War • The Spread of Communism and the Iron Curtain • Truman and the Truman Doctrine • Marshall Plan • Berlin Blockade and Berlin Airlift • NATO • United Nations- 1945- • Peace • Human Rights • Trade and economic development (IMF and GATT)

  15. Cold War • 2nd Red Scare after World War II • Soviets Possess atomic weapons • Communists had gained control of China- Mao • H.U.A.C- House Un-American Activities Committee. (And the Hollywood 10) • Truman and the Loyalty Plan • Spy Cases • Senator Joseph McCarthy

  16. Korea • Korea before the war. • How it started. • Role of the U.S. and the U.N. • Pusan and Inchon • MacArthur and his firing • Fighting ends • Peace- Stalemate and Demilitarized Zone- 38th parallel.

  17. Eisenhower • Cold War • Brinkmanship • Massive Retaliation • Nikita Khrushchev • Warsaw Pact and the Hungarian uprising • Summit Meeting- U.S. and Soviets • Cold War Hot spots • Vietnam and SEATO • Middle East, Suez Canal, METO and Eisenhower Doctrine • Cold War Worries • Atomic Anziety- Hydrogen Bomb, Arms Race, new bombs and technology • Space Race-Sputnik, Explorer and NASA. • Civil Defense • Limited Test-Ban Treaty • Military-Industrial Complex

  18. President Kennedy • Bay of Pigs- invasion of Cuba • Cuban Missile Crisis and its effects • Berlin Crisis- The Wall and its significamce • Peace Corps • Alliance for Progress • Flexible response- strengthening conventional force to give alternative to nuclear weapons. • Space Program

  19. LBJ Foreign Policy • Johnson Doctrine-not allow the establishment of a communist dictatorship- the U.S. would intervene • Pueblo Incident- North Korea • Vietnam- Increasing U.S. involvement- Tonkin Gulf Resolution. • Air War, Ground War, Mobilization, • Public Opinion- Media effect; Hawks and Doves; anti-war movement; • Turning Point- Tet Offensive and credibility gap; Johnson refuses to run again.

  20. Vietnam War • Ho Chi Minh and Vietminh • After WWII- • 1st Indochina War- Vietminh v. French • Domino Theory • Geneva Conference and the 17th parallel • Civil War- South Vietnam v. Vietcong (NLF-communists) • Ngo Dinh Diem- President of South Vietnam • U.S. involvement- The “Domino Theory • Kennedy- Military advisors and Green Beret with ARVN • Casualties rose • Diem overthrown • LBJ and the Tonkin Gulf Resolution • Air War- bombing- “Operation Rolling Thunder” • Ground War- guerilla, pacification, Vietnamization, Search and Destroy, Tunnels • Mobilization- The Draft, Medical, Materials • Public Opinion- media, Hawks and Doves, Anti-War Movement, Credibility Gap • Tet Offensive and its affects and war critics • Peace Initiatives

  21. Vienam and Nixon Vietnam • Vietnamazation and bringing the troops home. • Bombing and invasions of Laos and Cambodia- “The Madman theory” to stop the war. • Increasing Protests- Kent State, Weathermen and My Lai Massacre and Pentagon Papers • Legacy of Vietnam- Khmer Rouge, domino theory, environmental damage, dead, refugees, effects on veterans. • War Powers Act 1973

  22. Nixon Foreign Policy • Henry Kissinger and Realpolitik • Détente • Nixon in China and the U.S.S.R. (S.A.L.T.) • Middle East • Yom Kippur War- Egypt, Syria and Jordan v. Israel. • Oil Embargo and O.P.E.C. • Kissinger and Shuttle Diplomacy

  23. Ford Foreign Policy • Foreign policy limited by Vietnam experience. • Helped nearly 250,000 escape Vietnam, but Congress would allow little more. • Congress refused to allow Ford to aid anti-Castro forces in Cuba. • Cargo Ship “Mayaguez” siezed by Cambodia- Ford sent military raid. • Kissinger, Détente, and reduction of arms with Soviet Union. • U.S./Soviet joint space project- Docking in space.

  24. Carter Foreign Policy • No real personal experience in foreign affairs. • Committed to human rights • Soviets- SALT II • Panama Canal Treaties • Formally recognized Communist People’s Republic of China • Camp David Accords- Israel and Egypt • Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan • Iranian Hostage Crisis • Events in Iran disrupted the production of oil and prices shot up.

  25. Reagan Foreign Policy • Cold War • The “Evil Empire”- Soviet Union and relations worsened • Reagan increased military spending • Strategic Defense Iniative- “SDI or Star Wars” • Soviet Union weakening- Gorbachev believes only way to salvage the Soviet economy was to strike a deal with the U.S. • INF Treaty- destruction of a whole class of weapons. • Solidarity in Poland • Latin American civil wars- El Salvador and Nicaragua. • Lebanon- PLO, Israel, Christian, U.S. Marines suicide bombed. • Grenada and victory • End of Apartheid in South Africa

  26. George H.W. Bush Foreign Policy • Collapse of the Soviet Union • Gorbachev- glasnost and perestroika • Eastern European Communist government crumble. • Berlin War- “Mr. Gorbachev, Tear down this wall”. Gates opened 1989s and wall comes down. • Soviet republics began to declare independence. • 1991- START I; 1993- START II • China- Tiananmen Square massacre- democracy crushed. • Panama- Operation Just Cause • 1st Persian Gulf War- Operation Desert Storm • Nelson Mandela and South Africa • Sent Troops into Somalia

  27. Clinton Foreign Policy • Successes in the Middle East- Oslo Accords • Somalia- Clinton withdrew forces • Clinton did not sent in help to stop the genocide in Rwanda. • Haiti- troops sent in to bring peaceful political change. • Former Yugoslavia- Dayton Accords to end fighting in Bosnia and Herzegovina and stop serbs. • NAFTA- North American Free Trade Agreement- no tariff barriers between U.S. , Canada and Mexico.

  28. George W. Bush Foreign Policy • Felt Troops should be used to fight and win war. Military needs to be prepared. • Cancelled the 1972 ABM Treaty- Danger now from Terrorist state. • Promised to develop missile defense system. • Worked for better relations with Russia and China. • Critical of North Korea and its buildup of nuclear weapons. Axis of Evil. • Middle East Road map to peace- two state vision- Independent Palestinian state and Jewish State of Israel. • Sept. 11, 2001 lead to the Department of Homeland Security, the War in Afghanistan, and Iraq.