Harvard referencing Guide to citing and referencing resources
Referencing sources • Why do we provide references? • Acknowledge sources • Demonstrate breadth of reading • Avoid plagiarism • References in bibliography should be consistent • Use a particular style • York St John has adopted the ‘Harvard’ style
Plagiarism • Guidance on plagiarism from tutors and programme handbooks • Turnitin software to check your assignments can be made available via Moodle by your tutors • You quote it, you note it! Vaughan Memorial library, Nova Scotia – light heartedtutorial about the importance of avoiding plagiarism
Links to the Harvard guide • Library guide available from the Library Homepage: Referencing and citing sources in my work • Direct URL is: http://www.yorksj.ac.uk/library/guide/citing/index.aspx
Citing in the text • Harvard uses the author date method. • Refer to the first part of YSJ guide • Written material which isn't your own can be included in your work in three ways: • quoting • paraphrasing • summarising • Whichever one of these you choose to do, for each source you will need to provide both an in text citation and a corresponding entry in your reference list.
In-text citation: Layout and examples • 1. Paraphrase or summary: • Include the surname and date in brackets This concept has been explored in detail (Argyle, 2006). • Or within the sentence only the date is in brackets: Argyle (2006) has explored this concept in detail. • 2. Direct quotation: • Include the surname, date and page number also Cottrell (2008, p.147) describes the Internet as 'a wide interconnecting set of computers'.
Reference lists: Book • Author(s), editor(s) (up to three with surname and initials only). If it’s an editor, must include ed. /eds. • Year of publication • Title and subtitle (if any) - underlined , in bold , or in italics • Edition if not the first, for example 2nd ed. • Series and individual volume number (if any) • Place of publication if known • Publisher
Carter, R. et al (2001) Working with texts: a core introduction to language analysis. 2nd ed. Intertext. London, Routledge.
What’s wrong with these? • Grundy, P. Doing pragmatics. 2nd ed. London, Arnold. • Jaworski, A. & Coupland, N. eds. (1999) The discourse reader. Routledge. • Goddard, Angela. & Mean, L.J. (2009) Language and gender. 2nd ed.Intertext. London, Routledge. • The Oxford English dictionary. (1989) Vol. 5, 2nd ed. Oxford.
Chapter in edited book • Author of chapter/section • Year of publication • Title of chapter/section • The word In: • Author/editors of collected work (up to three) • Title of collected work – underlined, in bold, or in italics • Edition and series if applicable • Place of publication • Publisher • Page numbers of section referred to
Examples • Chapter in book Yallop, C. (2004) Words and meaning. In: Halliday, M. A. K. et al. Lexicology and corpus linguistics: an introduction. Open linguistics series. London, Continuum, pp. 23-71. • Secondary reference(book cited in another book) If the source is cited in another book but you have not actually seen the original, you should cite both the original source and the secondary source where you found it. • In text citation: Copeau (quoted in Gordon, 2006, p.122) declares that 'new dramatic forms will come from new ways of living, thinking and feeling'. • Full reference: In the reference list at the end of the assignment you need only include a reference for Gordon, as you have not looked at the original source by Copeau, but have read about it in Gordon's work. Gordon, L. (2006) Drama in the 20th century. Routledge, London.
Journal article • Author/s of the article (up to three, with surname and initials only) • Year of publication • Title of the article • Title of the journal – underlined, in bold, or in italics • Volume and part number, or if no part number the month or season of the year • Page numbers of article
Examples • Cappelle, B. & Declerck, R. (2005) Spatial and temporal boundedness in English motion events. Journal of pragmatics, 37 (6), pp. 889-917. • Horn, G. M. (2003) Idioms, metaphors and syntactic mobility. Journal of linguistics, 39 (2), pp. 245-273. • Jaspaert, K. & Kroon, S. (1991) Social determinants of language shift by Italians in the Netherlands and Flanders. International journal of the sociology of language, 90, pp. 77-96.
Electronic journal article • Author/editor • Year – in brackets • Title of article • Title of journal – underlined, in bold, or in italics • The word Internet – in square brackets • Volume number • Issue number • Pagination or online equivalent • The words Available from • The Internet address – in chevrons • The word Accessed and date you viewed the web page – in square brackets
Example • Vilppula, M. (1995) The sun and the definition of day. International journal of lexicography [Internet], 8 (1), pp. 29-38. Available from: <http://ijl.oxfordjournals.org/>[Accessed 21 August 2006]. • A journal which is only accessible via the Internet may not have pagination, so this would be omitted or where applicable, the number of pages substituted.
Website • Author/editor • Year – in brackets • Title – underlined, in bold, or in italics • The word Internet – in square brackets • Version if available (for example, update 2 or version 4.1) • Place of publication • Publisher (if ascertainable) • The words Available from • The Internet address • The word Accessed and the date you viewed the web page – in square brackets
Example • Website – document accessible via a website. Anderson, A. H. (2002) Psychology and linguistics: what do we need to teach each other? [Internet] Southampton: Subject Centre for Languages, Linguistics and Area Studies Good Practice Guide. Available from: <http://www.llas.ac.uk/resources/gpg/295> [Accessed 24 October 2009].