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CHAPTER ONE

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  1. CHAPTER ONE The Foundations of Chemistry

  2. Chapter Outline • Matter and Energy • States of Matter • Chemical and Physical Properties • Chemical and Physical Changes • Mixtures, Substances, Compounds, and Elements • Measurements in Chemistry • Units of Measurement

  3. Chapter Outline • Use of Numbers • The Unit Factor Method (Dimensional Analysis) • Percentage • Density and Specific Gravity • Heat and Temperature • Heat Transfer and the Measurement of Heat

  4. Matter and Energy - Vocabulary • Chemistry • Science that describes matter – its properties, the changes it undergoes, and the energy changes that accompany those processes • Matter • Anything that has mass and occupies space. • Energy • The capacity to do work or transfer heat. • Scientific (natural) law • A general statement based the observed behavior of matter to which no exceptions are known.

  5. Natural Laws • Law of Conservation of Mass • Law of Conservation of Energy • Law of Conservation of Mass-Energy • Einstein’s Relativity • E=mc2

  6. Scientific Method • Observation • Hypothesis • Observation or experiment • Theory • Observation or experiment • Law

  7. States of Matter • Solids

  8. States of Matter • Solids • Liquids

  9. States of Matter • Solids • Liquids • Gases

  10. States of Matter • Change States • heating • cooling

  11. States of Matter • Illustration of changes in state • requires energy

  12. Chemical and Physical Properties • Chemical Properties - chemical changes • rusting or oxidation • chemical reactions • Physical Properties - physical changes • changes of state • density, color, solubility • Extensive Properties - depend on quantity • Intensive Properties - do not depend on quantity

  13. Mixtures, Substances, Compounds, and Elements • Substance • matter in which all samples have identical composition and properties • Elements • substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances via chemical reactions • Elemental symbols • found on periodic chart

  14. Mixtures, Substances, Compounds, and Elements

  15. Mixtures, Substances, Compounds, and Elements • Compounds • substances composed of two or more elements in a definite ratio by mass • can be decomposed into the constituent elements • Water is a compound that can be decomposed into simpler substances – hydrogen and oxygen

  16. Mixtures, Substances, Compounds, and Elements

  17. Mixtures, Substances, Compounds, and Elements • Mixtures • composed of two or more substances • homogeneous mixtures • heterogeneous mixtures

  18. Measurements in Chemistry QuantityUnitSymbol • length meter m • mass kilogram kg • time second s • current ampere A • temperature Kelvin K • amt. substance mole mol

  19. Measurements in ChemistryMetric Prefixes NameSymbolMultiplier • mega M 106 • kilo k 103 • deka da 10 • deci d 10-1 • centi c 10-2

  20. Measurements in ChemistryMetric Prefixes NameSymbolMultiplier • milli m 10-3 • micro  10-6 • nano n 10-9 • pico p 10-12 • femto f 10-15

  21. Units of Measurement Definitions • Mass • measure of the quantity of matter in a body • Weight • measure of the gravitational attraction for a body

  22. Units of Measurement Common Conversion Factors • Length • 1 m = 39.37 inches • 2.54 cm = 1 inch • Volume • 1 liter = 1.06 qt • 1 qt = 0.946 liter • See Table 1-7 for more conversion factors

  23. Use of Numbers • Exact numbers • 1 dozen = 12 things for example • Accuracy • how closely measured values agree with the correct value • Precision • how closely individual measurements agree with each other

  24. Use of Numbers • Significant figures • digits believed to be correct by the person making the measurement • Measure a mile with a 6 inch ruler vs. surveying equipment • Exact numbers have an infinite number of significant figures 12.000000000000000 = 1 dozen because it is an exact number

  25. Use of Numbers Significant Figures - Rules • Leading zeroes are never significant 0.000357 has three significant figures • Trailing zeroes may be significant must specify significance by how the number is written 1300 nails - counted or weighed? • Use scientific notation to remove doubt 2.40 x 103 has ? significant figures

  26. Use of Numbers • Scientific notation for logarithms take the log of 2.40 x 103 log(2.40 x 103) = 3.380 How many significant figures? • Imbedded zeroes are always significant 3.0604 has five significant figures

  27. Use of Numbers • Piece of Black Paper – with rulers beside the edges

  28. Use of Numbers • Piece of Paper Side B – enlarged • How long is the paper to the best of your ability to measure it?

  29. Use of Numbers • Piece of Paper Side A – enlarged • How wide is the paper to the best of your ability to measure it?

  30. Use of Numbers • Determine the area of the piece of black paper using your measured values. • Compare your answer with your classmates. • Where do your answers differ in the numbers? • Significant figures rules for multiplication and division must help us determine where answers would differ.

  31. Use of Numbers • Multiplication & Division rule Easier of the two rules Product has the smallest number of significant figures of multipliers

  32. Use of Numbers • Multiplication & Division rule Easier of the two rules Product has the smallest number of significant figures of multipliers

  33. Use of Numbers • Multiplication & Division rule Easier of the two rules Product has the smallest number of significant figures of multipliers

  34. Use of Numbers • Determine the perimeter of the piece of black paper using your measured values. • Compare your answer with your classmates. • Where do your answers differ in the numbers? • Significant figures rules for addition and subtraction must help us determine where answers would differ.

  35. Use of Numbers • Addition & Subtraction rule More subtle than the multiplication rule Answer contains smallest decimal place of the addends.

  36. Use of Numbers • Addition & Subtraction rule More subtle than the multiplication rule Answer contains smallest decimal place of the addends.

  37. Use of Numbers • Addition & Subtraction rule More subtle than the multiplication rule Answer contains smallest decimal place of the addends.

  38. The Unit Factor Method • Simple but important method to get correct answers in word problems. • Method to change from one set of units to another. • Visual illustration of the idea.

  39. The Unit Factor Method • Change from a to a by obeying the following rules.

  40. The Unit Factor Method • Change from a to a by obeying the following rules. • Must use colored fractions.

  41. The Unit Factor Method • Change from a to a by obeying the following rules. • Must use colored fractions. • The box on top of the fraction must be the same color as the next fraction’s bottom box.

  42. The Unit Factor Method R • Fractions to choose from R O B O B B O R O B B B

  43. The Unit Factor Method O R R • Fractions to choose from R O B O B B O R O B B B

  44. The Unit Factor Method O B R R O • Fractions to choose from R O B O B B O R O B B B

  45. The Unit Factor Method O B B R B R O B • Fractions to choose from R O B O B B O R O B B B

  46. The Unit Factor Method O B B R B R O B • Fractions to choose from R O B O B B O R O B B B

  47. The Unit Factor Method O B B R B R O B • Fractions to choose from R O B O B B O R O B B B

  48. The Unit Factor Method O B B R B R O B • Fractions to choose from R O B O B B O R O B B B

  49. The Unit Factor Method • colored fractions represent unit factors 1 ft = 12 in becomes or • Example 1-1: Express 9.32 yards in millimeters.

  50. The Unit Factor Method