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## CHAPTER ONE

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**CHAPTER ONE**The Foundations of Chemistry**Chapter Outline**• Matter and Energy • States of Matter • Chemical and Physical Properties • Chemical and Physical Changes • Mixtures, Substances, Compounds, and Elements • Measurements in Chemistry • Units of Measurement**Chapter Outline**• Use of Numbers • The Unit Factor Method (Dimensional Analysis) • Percentage • Density and Specific Gravity • Heat and Temperature • Heat Transfer and the Measurement of Heat**Matter and Energy - Vocabulary**• Chemistry • Science that describes matter – its properties, the changes it undergoes, and the energy changes that accompany those processes • Matter • Anything that has mass and occupies space. • Energy • The capacity to do work or transfer heat. • Scientific (natural) law • A general statement based the observed behavior of matter to which no exceptions are known.**Natural Laws**• Law of Conservation of Mass • Law of Conservation of Energy • Law of Conservation of Mass-Energy • Einstein’s Relativity • E=mc2**Scientific Method**• Observation • Hypothesis • Observation or experiment • Theory • Observation or experiment • Law**States of Matter**• Solids**States of Matter**• Solids • Liquids**States of Matter**• Solids • Liquids • Gases**States of Matter**• Change States • heating • cooling**States of Matter**• Illustration of changes in state • requires energy**Chemical and Physical Properties**• Chemical Properties - chemical changes • rusting or oxidation • chemical reactions • Physical Properties - physical changes • changes of state • density, color, solubility • Extensive Properties - depend on quantity • Intensive Properties - do not depend on quantity**Mixtures, Substances, Compounds, and Elements**• Substance • matter in which all samples have identical composition and properties • Elements • substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances via chemical reactions • Elemental symbols • found on periodic chart**Mixtures, Substances, Compounds, and Elements**• Compounds • substances composed of two or more elements in a definite ratio by mass • can be decomposed into the constituent elements • Water is a compound that can be decomposed into simpler substances – hydrogen and oxygen**Mixtures, Substances, Compounds, and Elements**• Mixtures • composed of two or more substances • homogeneous mixtures • heterogeneous mixtures**Measurements in Chemistry**QuantityUnitSymbol • length meter m • mass kilogram kg • time second s • current ampere A • temperature Kelvin K • amt. substance mole mol**Measurements in ChemistryMetric Prefixes**NameSymbolMultiplier • mega M 106 • kilo k 103 • deka da 10 • deci d 10-1 • centi c 10-2**Measurements in ChemistryMetric Prefixes**NameSymbolMultiplier • milli m 10-3 • micro 10-6 • nano n 10-9 • pico p 10-12 • femto f 10-15**Units of Measurement**Definitions • Mass • measure of the quantity of matter in a body • Weight • measure of the gravitational attraction for a body**Units of Measurement**Common Conversion Factors • Length • 1 m = 39.37 inches • 2.54 cm = 1 inch • Volume • 1 liter = 1.06 qt • 1 qt = 0.946 liter • See Table 1-7 for more conversion factors**Use of Numbers**• Exact numbers • 1 dozen = 12 things for example • Accuracy • how closely measured values agree with the correct value • Precision • how closely individual measurements agree with each other**Use of Numbers**• Significant figures • digits believed to be correct by the person making the measurement • Measure a mile with a 6 inch ruler vs. surveying equipment • Exact numbers have an infinite number of significant figures 12.000000000000000 = 1 dozen because it is an exact number**Use of Numbers**Significant Figures - Rules • Leading zeroes are never significant 0.000357 has three significant figures • Trailing zeroes may be significant must specify significance by how the number is written 1300 nails - counted or weighed? • Use scientific notation to remove doubt 2.40 x 103 has ? significant figures**Use of Numbers**• Scientific notation for logarithms take the log of 2.40 x 103 log(2.40 x 103) = 3.380 How many significant figures? • Imbedded zeroes are always significant 3.0604 has five significant figures**Use of Numbers**• Piece of Black Paper – with rulers beside the edges**Use of Numbers**• Piece of Paper Side B – enlarged • How long is the paper to the best of your ability to measure it?**Use of Numbers**• Piece of Paper Side A – enlarged • How wide is the paper to the best of your ability to measure it?**Use of Numbers**• Determine the area of the piece of black paper using your measured values. • Compare your answer with your classmates. • Where do your answers differ in the numbers? • Significant figures rules for multiplication and division must help us determine where answers would differ.**Use of Numbers**• Multiplication & Division rule Easier of the two rules Product has the smallest number of significant figures of multipliers**Use of Numbers**• Multiplication & Division rule Easier of the two rules Product has the smallest number of significant figures of multipliers**Use of Numbers**• Multiplication & Division rule Easier of the two rules Product has the smallest number of significant figures of multipliers**Use of Numbers**• Determine the perimeter of the piece of black paper using your measured values. • Compare your answer with your classmates. • Where do your answers differ in the numbers? • Significant figures rules for addition and subtraction must help us determine where answers would differ.**Use of Numbers**• Addition & Subtraction rule More subtle than the multiplication rule Answer contains smallest decimal place of the addends.**Use of Numbers**• Addition & Subtraction rule More subtle than the multiplication rule Answer contains smallest decimal place of the addends.**Use of Numbers**• Addition & Subtraction rule More subtle than the multiplication rule Answer contains smallest decimal place of the addends.**The Unit Factor Method**• Simple but important method to get correct answers in word problems. • Method to change from one set of units to another. • Visual illustration of the idea.**The Unit Factor Method**• Change from a to a by obeying the following rules.**The Unit Factor Method**• Change from a to a by obeying the following rules. • Must use colored fractions.**The Unit Factor Method**• Change from a to a by obeying the following rules. • Must use colored fractions. • The box on top of the fraction must be the same color as the next fraction’s bottom box.**The Unit Factor Method**R • Fractions to choose from R O B O B B O R O B B B**The Unit Factor Method**O R R • Fractions to choose from R O B O B B O R O B B B**The Unit Factor Method**O B R R O • Fractions to choose from R O B O B B O R O B B B**The Unit Factor Method**O B B R B R O B • Fractions to choose from R O B O B B O R O B B B**The Unit Factor Method**O B B R B R O B • Fractions to choose from R O B O B B O R O B B B**The Unit Factor Method**O B B R B R O B • Fractions to choose from R O B O B B O R O B B B**The Unit Factor Method**O B B R B R O B • Fractions to choose from R O B O B B O R O B B B**The Unit Factor Method**• colored fractions represent unit factors 1 ft = 12 in becomes or • Example 1-1: Express 9.32 yards in millimeters.