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Saving for a Rainy Day

Saving for a Rainy Day

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Saving for a Rainy Day

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  1. Saving for a Rainy Day Interest Grabber Section 8-1 • Suppose you earned extra money by having a part-time job. At first, you might be tempted to spend all of the money, but then you decide to open a bank account. • 1. What are the benefits of having a bank account? • 2. What do you have to do if you need some of this money? • 3. What might your body do when it has more energy than it needs to carry out its activities? • 4. What does your body do when it needs energy?

  2. Chapter 7 Nutrition Chapter 8 Prentice Hall text

  3. Why do we need energy???

  4. Do Now Copy these two Note cards down! 1. 2. 3.

  5. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) • Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is considered by biologists to be the energy currency of life. • It is the high-energy molecule that stores the energy we need to do just about everything we do. • As food (glucose) in the cells is gradually oxidized (broken-down), the released energy is used to re-form the ATP so that the cell always maintains a supply of this essential molecule.

  6. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) The energy currency of life. • Chemical energy (Fuel) stored and release for the body • Cells Use to store and release energy • 3 parts: Adenine Ribose 3 Phosphate groups

  7. ATP Structural Formula

  8. Figure 8-3 Comparison of ADP and ATP to a Battery Section 8-1 ADP ATP Energy Energy Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Partially charged battery Fully charged battery

  9. Figure 8-3 Comparison of ADP and ATP to a Battery Section 8-1 ADP ATP Energy Energy Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Partially charged battery Fully charged battery

  10. ATP ATP Synthesis

  11. ATP Cycle

  12. ATP Chemical Energy Section 8-1

  13. ATP Cycle Hydrolysis of ATP H20 + ATP ADP + P + ENERGY Dehydration Synthesis of ATP ADP + P + ENERGY H20 + ATP

  14. Nutrition

  15. “Not to eat” Nutrition The activities by which living things obtain or (create food) and process it for growth and repair of their body cells. Two Types: Autotrophic Nutrition Heterotrophic Nutrition

  16. Types of Nutrition Section 8-1 Autotrophs: organisms that make their own food. **Photosynthetic: converts inorganic materials (H2O, CO2) into an organic usable form (glucose) Heterotroph: must obtain their nutrients from their environment **cannot convert sunlight

  17. Is algae a plant? • What organisms produce the most free atmospheric (usable) oxygen?

  18. Is algae a plant? • Algae, like land plants, capture the sun’s energy and support the food web that leads to fish and shellfish. 

  19. Is algae a plant? • They occur in a size range from tiny microscopic cells floating in the water column (phytoplankton) to large mats of visible “macroalgae” that grow on bottom sediments.

  20. 75% of the earth oxygen Global Biomass: < 1% of the plant biomass on earth BUT responsible for nearly half the net photosynthesis of the biosphere!

  21. What is phytoplankton? • Phytoplankton: (from the Greek words phytos = plant and planktos = wanderer) • Phytoplankton, microscopic plant life that floats freely in the lit surface waters, may alter the color of the water.

  22. When a great number of the microscopic plants are concentrated in an area, the color of the ocean surface will change. • This is called a "bloom." This photograph shows such a change in color. What is phytoplankton?

  23. What is phytoplankton?

  24. Nutrition Autotrophic Heterotrophic • Autotrophs can make their own • Food (Glucose) • Plant, algae, and some bacteria • 2 types • Chemo synthesisPhotosynthesis • Uses chemicals Like Sulfur and Nitrogen to Make its’ own food • Re: Ingest, digest, egest • All Animal and fungi, • some bacteria • Types of Digestion: • Mechanical/physical • using teeth to chew • Chemical • using enzymes+ acids • Where it Takes place: • Intracellular Dig • Extracellular Dig • Uses sunlight, CO2 And water to create sugar. • Uses 2 reactions a. Light reaction b. Dark reaction

  25. Why is it important? Microscopic plant life is at the base of the marine food web and is the primary food and energy source for the ocean ecosystem. Phytoplankton converts sunlight with the help of the green pigment chlorophyll. The chlorophyll pigments in the plants absorb light, and the plants themselves scatter light. Together, these processes change the color of the ocean as seen by an observer looking downward into the sea. Very productive water with a lot of plankton appears blue-green. Very pure water appears deep-blue, almost black.

  26. 8–2 Photosynthesis: An Overview Section 8-2 A. Investigating Photosynthesis 1. Van Helmont’s Experiment 2. Priestley’s Experiment 3. Jan Ingenhousz B. The Photosynthesis Equation C. Light and Pigments

  27. Wavelengths effects on Photosynthesis • Which Wavelengths are the best for photosynthetic plants? • Which Wavelength is the worst?

  28. Absorption of Light by Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b Section 8-2 Chlorophyll b Chlorophyll a V B G Y O R

  29. Wavelengths effects on Photosynthesis

  30. Trapping Energy Interest Grabber Section 8-2 • Have you ever used a solar-powered calculator? No matter where you go, as long as you have a light source, the calculator works. You never have to put batteries in it.

  31. Interest Grabber continued Section 8-2 • 1. A solar-powered calculator uses solar cells that are found in rows along the top of the calculator. Into what kind of energy is the light energy converted so that the calculator works? • 2. Recall that plants use light energy from the sun to make food. Into what kind of energy is the light energy converted by plants? • 3. Most plants, no matter what size or shape they are, have some parts that are green. Which parts of a plant are usually green? • 4. What does the green color have to do with the plant’s ability to convert light energy into the energy found in the food it makes?

  32. Photosynthesis

  33. Section Outline Section 8-3 8–3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis A. Inside a Chloroplast B. Electron Carriers C. Light-Dependent Reactions D. The Calvin Cycle E. Factors Affecting Photosynthesis

  34. Do Now Section 8-3 includes takes place in uses use take place in to produce to produce of

  35. Light- dependent Reactions, photolysis Energy from sunlight Grana ATP NADPH O2 Chloroplasts Do Now Section 8-3 Photosynthesis includes Light independent reaction , dark reaction ,Calvin cycle takes place in uses use take place in Stroma ATP NADPH to produce to produce of High-energy sugars

  36. Photosynthesis: Reactants and Products Light Energy Chloroplast Sugars + O2 CO2 + H2O

  37. Temperature • Light Intensity • Carbon Dioxide Concentration Factors Affecting the rate of Photosynthesis

  38. Chloroplasts

  39. Chloroplasts

  40. Chlorophyll Chlorophyll a:The green photosynthetic pigment common to all photosynthetic organisms. Chlorophyll b:An accessory chlorophyll found in green algae and plants. Chlorophyll c:An accessory chlorophyll found in some protistans.

  41. is the process of using inorganic reactants to create organic molecules. It is composed of two major reactions. Photosynthesis • The light Independent reaction: • aka photolysis, photochemical reaction • Occurs in the Grana • The Light Independent reaction: • aka Calvin Cycle, Dark Reaction • Occurs in the Stroma

  42. ___+___+______+___ 12 (H2O) 6(CO2) Oxygen (6O2) AKA Glucose C6H1206

  43. ___+___+______+___ Products Reactants  Oxygen (6O2) AKA Glucose 6(CO2) 12 (H2O) C6H1206

  44. Light Reaction Oxygen (6O2) Chloroplast I am out of here! 12 WATER molecules (H2O) 12 Hydrogen 12 Hydrogen AKA Photolysis NADPH + ATP (This all occurs In the Grana.)

  45. (This all occurs in the Stroma.) Dark Reaction “Calvin Cycle” “Light Independent Reaction” NADPH +ATP 12 Hydrogen 12 Hydrogen Carbon Fixation 6(CO2) C6H1206 6(H20) AKA Glucose

  46. The Food Factory 4 3 1 ? ? ? 2 *6* 5

  47. water CO2 Sugars O2 Figure 8-7 Photosynthesis: An Overview Section 8-3 Chloroplast Chloroplast NADP+ ADP + P Light- Dependent Reactions Calvin Cycle ATP NADPH

  48. water CO2 Sugars O2 Figure 8-7 Photosynthesis: An Overview Section 8-3 Chloroplast Chloroplast NADP+ ADP + P Light- Dependent Reactions Calvin Cycle ATP NADPH

  49. Figure 8-10 Light-Dependent Reactions Section 8-3 Hydrogen Ion Movement Chloroplast Photosystem II ATP synthase Inner Thylakoid Space Thylakoid Membrane Stroma Electron Transport Chain Photosystem I ATP Formation