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Safety Ergonomics

Safety Ergonomics

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Safety Ergonomics

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  1. Safety Ergonomics Safety 4000 UCMO

  2. Safety Ergonomics • Outline • Industries Affected • History of Ergonomics • Future of Ergonomics • Overall Health effects • Lab Computer Workstation • Evaluation of Hand tools • Health effects of tools • Final Examination and Practical Safety 4000, Ergonomics August 2008

  3. Class Work • Practical Examination – workstation evaluation • Paper: Proposed Ergonomics standard • Quizes • Final Examination Safety 4000, Ergonomics August 2008

  4. Paper • Suggested criteria/standard on ergonomics • Specific Tool/process • Follow OSHA Example • Present or discuss your paper in class • If you bring the tool, it’s worth extra credit. Safety 4000, Ergonomics August 2008

  5. Paper Requirements • 5-7 pages minimim • 3 References (NIOSH, CDC, OSHA) • Extra credit for additional references • Provide analysis • Industry Cost $$$$ • How many injuries will this standard prevent Safety 4000, Ergonomics August 2008

  6. Paper Due: • 11 October 2008. • Advantage in early paper turn-in. • Comments? Safety 4000, Ergonomics August 2008

  7. Practical • Perform an evaluation of Computer Workstation • Complete form • Provide Recommendations Safety 4000, Ergonomics August 2008

  8. Final • About 25 Questions • Multiple-choice questions • Fill in the blank • 3-4 Essay Questions • True/False Safety 4000, Ergonomics August 2008

  9. Media* • Videos on Ergonomic Programs • Material is testable Safety 4000, Ergonomics August 2008

  10. Texts: • The Ergonomics Edge: Dan Macleod. • Practical Ergonomics

  11. Ergonomics • You’re Experience?

  12. Questions?

  13. What Is Ergonomics? SAFE4000 Overview

  14. Ergonomics • Based on 2 words, ergo & nomos • Ergo means laws or rules • Nomos means work or strength • Thus, ergonomics means laws of work SAFE4000 Overview

  15. Ergonomics • 1950, “ergonomics” was coined by a group of British scientists • 1957 American Scientists working in the same discipline called themselves the Human Factors Society SAFE4000 Overview

  16. Ergonomics Is ... • Engineering Tool • Design out job hazards • Eliminating causes • Preventing accidents SAFE4000 Overview

  17. Viewpoints on Ergonomics • Historic viewpoint - make people fit the job, e.g., “The Jungle” SAFE4000 Overview

  18. Viewpoints on Ergonomics • Current Viewpoint - make job fit the person SAFE4000 Overview

  19. Ergonomic Definitions • Board of Certification in Professional Ergonomics • Body of knowledge about human abilities, human limitations, and other human characteristics that are relevant to design SAFE4000 Overview

  20. Ergonomic Definitions • OSHA • Study of the design of requirements of work in relation to the physical and psychological capabilities and limitations of people SAFE4000 Overview

  21. Keywords - FAR*LTV • Force • Awkward posture • Repetition {*3 most important risk factors} SAFE4000 Overview

  22. Keywords - FARLTV (continued) • Lack of Rest • Temperature • Vibration SAFE4000 Overview

  23. Body Tissues Affected • Soft Tissues • Nerves • Tendons • Tendon Sheaths • Ligaments • Blood vessels SAFE4000 Overview

  24. Body Tissues Affected • Bones • Spine, especially the lower portion of spine – lumbar region • Bones in fingers - white finger disease SAFE4000 Overview

  25. Is Ergonomic a New Problem? SAFE4000 Overview

  26. History - Bernardo Ramazzini • In 1700 this Italian physician wrote a text describing many occupational hazards • Included were problems that today we call cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) SAFE4000 Overview

  27. History - Bernardo Ramazzini • CTDs appeared in workers who did violent & irregular motions and assumed unnatural positions • Also noted problem for office workers! SAFE4000 Overview

  28. History - Bernardo Ramazzini • He noted risk factors for office workers: • Repetitive hand motions • Constrained postures • Excessive mental stress SAFE4000 Overview

  29. Early Tools… Dental Tools!

  30. History - Alice Hamilton • Dr. Alice Hamilton • Mother of Occup Medicine in US • Studied White Finger Disease (HAVS) in Indiana Limestone Quarry workers in the 1930’s SAFE4000 Overview

  31. History - Erwin Tichauer • Dr. Tichauer • Taught at New York University • Developed concept of bending tool handle instead of the worker’s wrist • Wrote Chapter 32 of the NIOSH White Book, 1973 SAFE4000 Overview

  32. Bend Tool Handle - Not Wrist SAFE4000 Overview

  33. John Deer, 1837 Plow

  34. Common Terms • Washer Woman’s Sprain • Gamekeepers Thumb • Telegraphist’s Cramp • Writer’s Cramp SAFE4000 Overview

  35. Common Terms • Trigger Finger • Tennis Elbow • Golfer’s Elbow • Dunlaps Disease SAFE4000 Overview

  36. Benefits of Improving Ergonomic Environment • Higher morale • Improved quality of work • Greater efficiency/Improved productivity SAFE4000 Overview

  37. Benefits of Improving Ergonomic Environment • Reduced absenteeism • Lower turnover • Fewer repetitive trauma disorders • Fewer workers comp claims SAFE4000 Overview

  38. Certification - Continued • BCPE - Board of Certification in Professional Ergonomics • First certifications in 1992 • CPE/CHFP • More recently developed Associates Certification SAFE4000 Overview

  39. Ergonomics Focuses On • Accommodating information processing capabilities of the brain • Physical properties/constraints of body • Designing controls to minimize muscle fatigue SAFE4000 Overview

  40. Ergonomics Consists Of • Engineering • Physiology • Medicine • Anthropometrics • Behavioral Science SAFE4000 Overview

  41. Other Ergonomic Considerations • Psychological factors (attitudes) • Somatic factors (age) • Physiological factors (glucose, oxygen) SAFE4000 Overview

  42. Other Ergonomic Considerations • Learning factors (knowledge) • Nature of work (intensity, duration) • Environment (heat, chemical exposure, noise) SAFE4000 Overview

  43. Ergonomists Use A Systems Approach

  44. Applying Systems Approach • Proactive - action taken before CTD occurs • Reactive - corrective action taken after CTD occurs SAFE4000 Overview

  45. No two workers are identical • Equal height • different arm reach • different trunk height • Equal weight • different strengths • different heights SAFE4000 Overview

  46. No two workers are identical • Design a workstation to accommodate 90-95% of the working population SAFE4000 Overview

  47. Design Considerations • Control/display design & location • Location/orient. of work surface • Guarding/warnings • Posture SAFE4000 Overview

  48. Design Considerations • Movements/repetitions • Accessibility • Machinery/equipment design • Hand tool design SAFE4000 Overview