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Postwar America 1945-1960

Postwar America 1945-1960

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Postwar America 1945-1960

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  1. Postwar America 1945-1960 Chapters 24 and 25

  2. Nuremberg Trials • War Trials were setup in one of Hitler’s most supportive cities, Nuremberg • 12 Nazi leaders were sentenced to death • Others avoided prosecution by leaving Germany before the surrender and going to safe havens in South and Central America • At the trials survivors gave vivid accounts of the atrocities brought on by the Nazi’s • Most of the men who took the stand claimed they were simply “following orders”

  3. The Nuremberg War Trials:Crimes Against Humanity

  4. Japanese War Crimes Trials General Hideki Tojo Bio-Chemical Experiments

  5. Potsdam Conference • Divided Germany into 4 zones controlled by US, USSR, GB, and France • Eliminated the Nazi Party • Rebuild German Industry • Moved Germans in other territories back to Germany • All local governments kept in place

  6. Potsdam Problems • Stalin refuses to allow elections in new Eastern European nations • Stalin also wants complete control of half of Germany • Churchill loses re-election while at the conference • It is at Potsdam that the other Allied leaders are informed of the Atomic Test

  7. Japan • US occupied Japan from 1945 to 1952 • Emperor Hirohito remained with NO power, Premier Hideki Tojo was sentenced to death by a Military Tribunal • Gen. MacArthur was given the responsibility to write a new constitution • 1947 Constitution: A democratic system was set up, freedom of religion and the right of women to vote were included • Japanese military was dismantled to ensure an end to the militarism(No Army and Navy) • Most Japanese accepted the constitution

  8. United Nations • Drawn from the League of Nations it to was designed to prevent wars and foster peace • General Assembly: all members • Security Council: 5 permanent members (US, Britain, Russia, China, and France) and 10 rotating members • Security Council can veto a General Assembly motion

  9. The Creation of the U. N.

  10. Founding of Israel • What is Zionism? Why is it a problem? • What happened when Britain withdrew from Palestine in 1948? • What countries attacked the new Israeli state? • Why were they able to fight them off? • Who is Ralph Bunche? • How did the final 1949 agreement resolve the conflict? • Is this the end of the problems in Palestine?

  11. Quiz: T/F • At Potsdam, Germany was divided into 3 zones between USSR, USA and Great Britain. • The Emperor and the Premier were both executed after WW2. • Eisenhower is sent to help write a new Japanese Constitution. • At the Nuremberg Trials more than 100 Nazi leaders were killed. • The United Nations Security Council has 5 permanent members.

  12. COLD WAR BeginsChapter 25 Section 1 • Cold War: Political standoff between Democracy and Communism • Begins due to American mistrust of Soviet motives in Eastern Europe • The USSR intended to occupy nations in Eastern Europe in order to install Communist governments to help ensure their safety from Germany and the Western Powers (USA, Great Britain)

  13. The Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations[“Iron Curtain”] US & the Western Democracies GOAL spread world-wide Communism GOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world.[George Kennan] • METHODOLOGIES: • Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] • Arms Race [nuclear escalation] • Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy]  “proxy wars” • Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]

  14. Cold War: Page 852 • Satellite State: • Containment: • What countries did the USSR control by the end of WW2? • What did Churchill claim the USSR had done to Europe?

  15. Cold War • Satellite States: Countries under Soviet control, most had “puppet” communist governments • Containment: US and British policy of stopping the Soviet Communist spread • What countries did the USSR control by the end of WW2? (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, parts of Poland and Romania) • What did Churchill claim the USSR had done to Europe? (He said an “Iron Curtain has descended across the continent”)

  16. The “Iron Curtain” From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe.-- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946

  17. Atomic Age • What are the Baruch Plan? (BP was an international organization that would impose penalties on countries violating nuclear restrictions) • Atomic Energy Act? (AEA created a commission that oversaw nuclear research and promoted the use of peacetime atomic energy)

  18. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) • United States • Belgium • Britain • Canada • Denmark • France • Iceland • Italy • Luxemburg • Netherlands • Norway • Portugal • 1952: Greece & Turkey • 1955: West Germany • 1983: Spain

  19. Warsaw Pact (1955) • East Germany • Hungary • Poland • Rumania • U. S. S. R. • Albania • Bulgaria • Czechoslovakia

  20. The Bi-Polarization of Europe: The Beginning of the Cold War

  21. Crisis in Berlin Page 851 • What was the cause of the BerlinAirlift? • What is NATO and what was the Soviet response to it?

  22. Crisis in Berlin Page 851 • What was the cause of the Berlin Airlift? (Soviets had blocked access to Berlin in an effort to keep the Western Powers out. US and Britain airlifted food and supplies to people of Berlin. The blockade failed.) • What is NATO and what was the Soviet response to it? (North Atlantic TreatyOrganization: promised to defend one another from attack. Soviets respond with the Warsaw Pact.)

  23. Post-War Germany

  24. Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948-49)

  25. Greece • 1946-Civil War erupts between Communist and British backed Greek monarchs • 1947-Britain stops aiding Greece • 1947-Russia takes land from Greece to control the Mediterranean and Black Seas • 1947-Truman Doctrine: The US will aid ANY country who wishes to fight communism (Korea, Vietnam, etc.) • 1948-US gives $400 million to aid Turkey and Greece •

  26. Marshall Plan (E.R.P.) • George C. Marshall, Truman’s Sec of State • European Recovery Program: Thought that if the US helped countries in Europe financially they could fight off communism • Truman requested $12.5 billion for European aid in 1948 • After the Soviets overthrew the Czech government the aid for Marshall Plan was granted • Marshall won the Nobel Peace prize for his efforts, he later served as Sec of Defense for Truman to deal with wars against communist countries

  27. Marshall Plan [1948] • “European Recovery Program.” • Secretary of State, George Marshall • The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. • $12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected]. •

  28. Quiz Section 2 T/F • Satellite nations were countries in Eastern Europe with Soviet friendly Communist governments. • During the Berlin Airlift the US and Britain brought food and supplies to West Berlin breaking the Soviet blockade. • The US never joins NATO. • The Truman Doctrine offered aid to any country being threatened by Communism. • The Marshall Plan, although supported by Truman, is never enacted into law.

  29. Communism In China p. 854 • Who was the leader of the Chinese Nationalist forces? • Who led the Chinese Communists? • What agreement did the Communists and Nationalists make during WW2? • In what way did the US aid the Nationalists? • What was the eventual outcome?

  30. Chinese Revolution (1949) • NationalistParty (democratic system) • Led by Chiang-Kai Shek or Jiang Jieshi Communist Party Led my Mao Zedong

  31. Mao’s Revolution: 1949 Who lost China? – A 2nd}Power!

  32. “The Forgotten War”- Korea (1950-1953)

  33. Korean War • 1945-Korea is divided into 2 zones. North is Communist, South is occupied by US. Division is at the 38th parallel • 1948-N. Korea (Kim Il Sung) S. Korea (Sygmun Rhee) set up government • 1949-US and USSR leave Korea as tensions increase

  34. Hostilities Begin in Korea June 25, 1950-North Korea invades South Korea. United Nations calls for an immediate ceasefire by North Korea. Soviets not present in the U.N. to veto the measure because they were boycotting the U.N. on not admitting Communist China in the U.N.. June 27- President Truman pledges support for South Korea with support from the U.N. which brands North Korea an aggressor nation and asks for U.N. members to come to S. Korea’s aid. UN and Truman respond by sending troops to help South Korea led by MacArthur

  35. Hostilities Begin in Korea *Fifteen nations of the U.N.- Bulk of the forces from the U.S.. “ If Korea falls, Communists would be encouraged to spread Communism throughout the world.” Pres. Harry S. Truman

  36. The Korean War: A “Police Action” (1950-1953) Kim Il-Sung Syngman Rhee “Domino Theory”

  37. The Korean War Phase 1- (Sept. 1950)-North Korea with Soviet weaponry push S. Korea and the U.S. back to Pusan. Phase 2- (Sept.-Oct. 1950)-Gen. Douglas MacArthur launches an amphibious counterattack at Inchon. Push their way all the way to Seoul. U.N. forces also attack from the south. This combined attack forces the North Koreans across the 38th parallel. And MacArthur pursues across the border. By October, U.N. forces reached the Yalu River the boundary between North Korea and China

  38. The Korean War Phase 3- (Nov.1950- Jan. 1951)-China enters the war. 300,000 Chinese troops cross the Yalu River and forces U.N. forces back across the 38th parallel. With China involved , MacArthur wants to escalate the war by dropping Atomic bombs on China. Truman decides on a Limited War and MacArthur criticizes Truman’s decision. Truman dismisses MacArthur. Dismissal hurts Truman popularity. Phase 4- (Feb. 1951-July 1953-) War reaches a stalemate- U.S. death tolls mount.

  39. Korean War continued • Sept. 1950-South Korean and US forces are pushed to tip of Korea near Pusan • Late Sept 1950-MacArthur counterattacks at Inchon, and recaptures Seoul(capital of South Korea) • Nov 1950-China enters war on North Korean side and stalemate ensues along the 38th parallel

  40. Korean War continued • 1951-MacArthur publicly states that he would like to “bomb” China with atomic weapons, Truman refuses. Wants a Limited War. • 1951-MacArthur publicly criticizes Truman and goes to Congress for help • 1951-Truman fires MacArthur (replaced by Gen. Matthew Ridgeway) MacArthur returns to heroes welcome • 1952 –Eisenhower becomes President

  41. Ike Ends the Korean War July 27, 1953- Armistice reached. Korea divided at 38th parallel. Same as before the war. Eisenhower keeps promise to end the war. Steps up bombing raids in North. Threatened to use nuclear weapons to end conflict.

  42. Korean War Ends • 54,000 US Soldiers die • 3 million Koreans die (Civilians and Military) • China loses more than ½ million men • Considered a victory for Containment because the spread of communism is stopped • United Nations works, unlike the League of Nations. Collective Security can protect nations from aggressors. • Establishes a DMZ (demilitarized zone) at the 38th parallel border •

  43. The Arms Race:A “Missile Gap?” • The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949. • Now there were two nuclear superpowers! •