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1945-1960 PowerPoint Presentation

1945-1960

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1945-1960

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  1. 1945-1960 Foreign Policy

  2. Cold War • 1945-1990 • Period of increasing tensions (short of war) between the US and the USSR

  3. Containment Policy • The US policy of allowing the USSR to keep any gains, but not allowing them to gain any more • Developed by George Kennan in his “Long Telegram”

  4. Cold War Leaders Truman Eisenhower

  5. Cold War Leaders Stalin Khrushchev

  6. Iron Curtain • The dividing line between communist Eastern Europe and democratic Western Europe during the Cold War

  7. The Iron Curtain

  8. Satellite Nations • The Soviet-dominated nations of Eastern Europe

  9. Satellite Nations

  10. Truman Doctrine • An extension of the Containment Policy • Truman’s policy of helping any country wanting to break free of domination by another and move towards democracy

  11. Marshall Plan • An extension of the Containment Policy • Developed by Sec. of State George Marshall • Gave $12.5 to $13 billion in economic aid to European countries to rebuild their economies after WWII • Rationale?

  12. Secretary of StateGeorge C. Marshall

  13. Division of Germany

  14. Berlin Divided

  15. Berlin Blockade • democratic West Berlin was inside communist East Germany • Stalin wanted non-communists out of East Germany • USSR cut-off all ground/water access to Berlin

  16. Berlin Airlift • The US, British, and French airlifted food, coal, and supplies to the people of West Berlin • Stalin eventually failed and ended the blockade

  17. Two Germanys • The US, British, and French combined their occupation zones to create West Germany • The USSR created East Germany out of their occupation zone

  18. NATO • 16 Western European and North American countries • Mutual defense treaty • 1949

  19. Warsaw Pact • Soviet response to NATO • USSR and satellite nations • Mutual defense treaty

  20. CIA & KGB • Central Intelligence Agency • US information-gathering (spy) agency • Created in 1947 • KGB • Soviet spy agency

  21. Chinese Civil War/Revolution • Communists –vs- Nationalists • Mao tse-Tung –vs- Chiang kai-Shek • Communists win in 1949 • Nationalists flee to Taiwan (two Chinas)

  22. Chinese Leaders Mao Tse-Tung Chiang Kai-Shek

  23. United Nations • Created in 1945 to replace the League of Nations • US joined • Has a military force to back-up resolutions • Security Council and General Assembly

  24. Division of Korea • Japanese controlled Korea until 1945 • Korea divided at the 38th Parallel • USSR occupied northern Korea • Set-up a communist gov’t • Kim Il Sung • US occupied southern Korea • Set-up a non-communist gov’t • Syngman Rhee

  25. Korean Leaders Kim Il Sung Syngman Rhee

  26. Korean War • US and USSR leave Korea in 1949 • North Korea invades South Korea in June 1950 • US and UN forces help South Korea push back North Korean forces • China helps North Korea • War lasts three years

  27. Truman –vs- MacArthur • MacArthur was openly critical of the Commander-in-Chief • Truman fires MacArthur for insubordination

  28. Massive Retaliation • Eisenhower’s response to any nuclear attack on the US • If the USSR uses one, we will use all of ours • Later called MAD Policy

  29. Brinkmanship • The willingness to go to the brink of nuclear war to achieve a goal • Started under Eisenhower

  30. Cuban Leaders Fulgencio Batista Fidel Castro

  31. Cuban Revolution • US backs Batista • Castro has popular support • Batista flees the country • Castro regime is in power from 1959-present

  32. Hungarian Revolt • Hungary wants the right to drop out of the Warsaw Pact • Nikita Khrushchev sends in the tanks • Hungary is crushed • 1956 Olympic Water Polo Match

  33. Sputnik • Oct. 1957 • USSR launches 1st artificial satellite • Space race begins • Focus on Math and Science

  34. French Indochina -Vietnam -Cambodia -Laos

  35. Ho Chi Minh -Leader of the Viet Minh (1941-1954) -Leader of North Vietnam (1954-1969)

  36. Dien Bien Phu

  37. Geneva Conference Attendees Results France withdraws from Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos Vietnam is divided at the 17th Parallel Unification elections are scheduled for 1956 • USSR • France • Great Britain • China • US

  38. Leaders of Divided Vietnam North Vietnam- Ho Chi Minh South Vietnam- Ngo Dinh Diem

  39. Domino Theory

  40. U-2 Incident • May 1, 1960 • U-2 spy plane shot down over the USSR • Pilot is captured alive • Khrushchev demands an apology

  41. Francis Gary Powers U-2 Spy Plane

  42. 1945-1960 Domestic Policy

  43. 1948 Election • Truman- Democrat • Dewey- Republican • Strom Thurmond- Dixiecrat