Download
developing country market access concerns with environmental measures n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Developing country market-access concerns with environmental measures PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Developing country market-access concerns with environmental measures

Developing country market-access concerns with environmental measures

98 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Developing country market-access concerns with environmental measures

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Developing country market-access concerns with environmental measures Ronald Steenblik OECD Trade Directorate

  2. Australia European Union Germany Japan Netherlands USA Montreal Protocol Flower Campaign Green Globe Int Fruit Container Org. Mangrove Action Project / Responsible Aquaculture Marine Stewardship Council Brazil (gasoline; lobster) Colombia (cut flowers) Chile (organic products) Guatemala (snow peas) Honduras (farmed shrimp) Hong Kong, China (plastics) India (tea, textiles, leather) Pakistan (textiles, leather) Philippines (textiles) Tanzania (farmed shrimp) Venezuela (gasoline) Zimbabwe (leather) Exporting country and affected product(s) Importing country, MEA or private standard-setting body

  3. Questions addressed in case studies • PROCESS: How was the measure developed? • IMPACT: How did developing-country exporters react? • RESPONSE: How did the importing country (or other standard-setting body) respond?

  4. Types of lessons we hope to learn • Identify relative importance, during policy design, of: • international norms • transparency • prior consultation • flexibility • Anticipate potential problems, avoid some unintended consequences • Identify good practices, and understand role of technical assistance

  5. Developing an International Standard for “Green” Tourism • Development of the measure • Private measure, led by tourism industry itself • Concern to encourage more-sustainable tourism • Consultative process for basis document • Issues raised by developing countries • Difficult to find direct reactions (plenty of indirect) • Main issues: cost; fear eco-labelling will favour North and international corporations • Responses • Made itself independent; lowered fees, especially for “destinations” in developing countries

  6. Phytosanitary Measures Affecting the Import of Fresh Durian Fruit • Development of the measure • Concern to protect plant life from specific pests • Transparent, scientific procedure used by Australia • Problems in obtaining adequate information caused delays • Issues raised by developing countries • Thailand felt measures were too stringent and costly, especially requirement to cut open almost half of fruits • Responses • Australia tried to explain risk assessment, continued bilateral contacts; looking for technical alternatives

  7. Adapting TEDs to Local Conditions • Development of the measure • Concern to protect endangered sea turtles • Policy evlolved through court interpretations • Compliance through U.S. Govt certification; most likely to be granted if exporting government required TEDs • Issues raised by developing countries • A number of countries challenged the measure at WTO • Costa Rica’s main problem was the technical specifications of TEDs: not suitable for their local conditions • Responses • USA worked with Costa Rica to approve a modified TED, and offered technical assistance

  8. Regulating the Labelling of Organic Plant Products • Development of the measure • Concern to protect consumers, prevent fraudulent labelling • Rules developed relatively quickly, based on Codex guidelines • Conformity assessment procedures relatively flexible • Issues raised by developing countries • Few complaints raised so far • Main issues seem to have been confusion over some of the terms • Responses • Japan has allowed foreign certifiers to certify products; has recognised IFOAM’s accreditation body; provided some assistance to Thailand

  9. Private Certification of a Fishery as Sustainable • Development of the measure • Concern to reduce over-fishing by rewarding sustainable fishing • MSC Standards (“Principles and Criteria”) for label based on international guidelines (FAO Code of Conduct), developed following consultations • Issues raised by developing countries • Could not apply uniform (Northern) standards to southern fisheries • Certification costly (benefits uncertain), requiring difficult-to-obtain data • Responses • MSC and WWF have put considerable efforts into funding assessments and adapting rules to tropical conditions

  10. Phase 2: workshop in November 2002 • Four groups of stakeholders: • Developing country exporters to obtain improved information • environmental regulators to hear DC concerns • donor agencies to share experience from the field • trade & environment policy makers: input in WTO

  11. Follow-up? • Identify best practices? • Focus on particular policy issues, such as conformity assessment procedures, technical assistance and capacity building? • other issues arising from workshop?