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  1. Click the left mouse button to continue

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  3. How to View the Instructors’ Presentation Each slide will animate when you press the LEFT mouse button. After all animations have taken place, you will see an arrow symbol at the bottom right hand corner of the screen. Press the LEFT mouse button to continue to the next slide. The arrow symbol looks like this: - If at any time you wish to end the presentation, press the Esc (Escape) key at the top left of the keyboard, then click on the X symbol at the top right of the screen to exit.

  4. Click the left mouse button to move through the slides from now on. You are about to view the presentation element covering the skill area of: - Observation Skills

  5. Observation Skills

  6. Observation Skills It is important to develop observation skills as it enables the expert rider to identify potential hazards and dangers at an early stage. This ensures that good progress can be made without prejudice to the safety of the rider and other road users.

  7. Observation Skills The red car has just pulled out right in front of you. Could you have foreseen that this situation would arise? Could you have positioned yourself so that the driver could have seen you earlier? Always expect the unexpected to occur!

  8. Observation Skills From this position our rider has a limited view of the junction ahead and potential hazards that may exist.

  9. Observation Skills As our rider nears the junction, his speed should reflect the unseen dangers ahead.

  10. Observation Skills Only when in close proximity to the junction does our rider’s view into it begin to increase. Even so, hazards present may still not be visible.

  11. Observation Skills Only when our rider reaches the junction does he have sufficient view to make an informed decision. Position yourself to give the best view, both to you and other road users. SEE AND BE SEEN!

  12. Observation Skills Use open spaces & breaks in hedges etc. to gain early views, but be aware of blind or hidden junctions.

  13. Observation Skills First Hazard Second Hazard

  14. Observation Skills The curvature of lamp posts, telegraph poles or trees can be a good indication of road layout.

  15. Observation Skills Reflections in shop windows.

  16. Observation Skills The angle of approaching headlights can also indicate road layout. You may think the road goes right - but it could be a junction on the brow of a hill

  17. Observation Skills Moving shadow or light cast by low sunlight can indicate an approaching hazard.

  18. Observation Skills Moving shadow or light from headlights - security light, taxi dropping a fare or a vehicle approaching?

  19. Observation Skills Make good use of lights to assist your riding at night.

  20. Observation Skills Beware of ‘Micro-climates’ - shaded areas are a hazard in cold conditions as ice can form unexpectedly.

  21. Observation Skills Defective surfaces are a danger. Try & avoid them, or ride over them slowly. Mud is especially slippery. Be aware of this near farms & building sites. Snow & ice are very dangerous. Use extreme caution. Is it worth riding in these conditions?

  22. Observation Skills Road paint is slippery when it is wet. Try & ride between the markings if possible. Over-banding can deflect tyres & offers less grip. Covers & temporary metal sheeting offer poor grip, especially when wet.

  23. Observation Skills A cluster of lamp posts ahead - is it a speed restriction, a roundabout or a garage forecourt?

  24. Observation Skills Beware of the possibilities of fuel spillage in the vicinity of petrol stations, especially on bends and roundabouts.

  25. Observation Skills A single lamp post on its own must indicate a hazard important enough to illuminate. What is it?

  26. Observation Skills No gap in a bank of trees - what feature of The System takes precedence here? SPEED! - how can you position when you cannot see what lies ahead?

  27. Observation Skills Motorway slip roads - where there is an off - slip there is nearly always an on - slip and traffic merging - plan ahead and position accordingly.

  28. Observation Skills If you are following a large vehicle, keep well back and look along both the near and off sides to get the best view of hazards.

  29. Observation Skills Remember - take views to both sides but don’t sit in the blind spot of the vehicle you are following. Maintain a safe following distance.