LECTURE 4:CELL INCLUSIONS. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL Shakarim State University of Semey SapakhovaZagipaBeisenovna, PhD
Cytoskeleton of the cell Structure : • System of micro tubes and microfilaments, permeating to the all cytoplasm. • Microtubes and microfilaments – these are complex of the protein molecules. • Cytoskeleton elastic, can be longer and shorter.
Cytoskeleton of the cell Function: • Support (cell skeleton). • Helps to movement of the cell structure. • Helps change of the form of the cell and different movement.
V. Fleming Cell center German cytologist. Studied cell center and nucleus. (1843 – 1905)
Cell center • Cell center haven’t in higher plants.
Cell center Строение: • Surrounding from 2 perpendicular centrioles. • Cylinders –formedfrom protein microtubes. • Centrioles arounded of cytoplasm - centersheros • Centrioles surrounded by the sealed of the cytoplasm - centerosphera
Cell center Functions: • It participates in the formation of spindle -centrioles to the poles diverge.Between them stretched microtubules, which are attached to the chromosome. • Участвует в образовании веретена деления – центриоли расходятся к полюсам. Между ними натягиваются микротрубочки, к которым прикрепляются хромосомы.
Movement organoids Pseudopodium Flagella Cilia
Movement organoids Строение: • Flagella and cilia are composed of microtubules. • In muscle cells, the contractile function of microfilaments provide - myofibers.
Movement organoids Functions: • Helps move of organisms. Provide movement of the body.
Cell inclusions - nonpermanent cell structures that appear and disappear.
Cell inclusions • Protein inclusions – granules.
Cell inclusions • Lipid inclusions – drops.
Cell inclusions • The crystals of calcium oxalate.
Cell inclusions • Starch inclusions – grain.
Tasks: • Specify a group of substances that make up the microtubule organelles of motion: 1) proteins; 2) carbohydrates; 3) lipids; 4) Mineral salts.
Tasks: 2. Specify in the form of inclusions in the cells which may be starch: 1) granules; 2) crystals; 3) grain; 4) drops.
Tasks: 3. Specify in the form of cells inclusions which are proteins: 1) granules; 2) crystals; 3) grain; 4) drops.
Tasks: 4. Choose function of the cell center: 1) формирование веретена деления клетки; 2) хранение наследственных признаков; 3) управление процессами жизнедеятельности клетки; 4) сборка рибосом. 1) forming a spindle cells; 2) possession of hereditary traits; 3) management of vital processes cells; 4) assembly of ribosomes.
Tasks: 5. What organelle consisting of two perpendicular to each other protein cylinders: 1) Golgi apparatus; 2) Cell center; 3) ribosomes; 4) ER.
Tasks: 6. Cell center has in cells: 1) Higher plants; 2) animal; 3) fungi; 4) bacteria.
Tasks: 7.Choose of the structure part of cytoskeleton : 1) carbohydrates; 2) microfilaments; 3) Cell wall; 4) lipids.
ELEMENT IN THE CELL • There are about 92 element occurring naturally in nature. • From these 92 element, only about 25 element are needed to build living organisms. • Not all these element found in all living cell. • Main elements are the most frequently found elements in cells, forming about 96% of the human body mass. • Micro-elements are the elements are found in small quantity in cells, but are important in biological processes.
CHEMICAL COMPOUND IN THE CELL • Chemical compounds in the cell can be divided into two major group: • Organic • Inorganic • Organic compounds are: • Chemical compounds contain carbon (exception are carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, carbides and carbonates which are typically considered as inorganic) • Are usually found in and originate from living organism. • Usually consist of macromolecules (large molecules). • Inorganic compounds are: • Chemical compounds that do not contain carbon • Usually a smaller and simpler than organic compounds • Founds in cells water, acids, alkalis and mineral salts
There are 4 main group of organic compounds in cells: • Carbohydrates • Lipids • Proteins • Nucleic acids • Carbohydrates • The carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The ratio of hydrogen to oxygen atoms in a molecule usually 2:1. • Many carbohydrates have the general formula CX(H2O)Y,where x is approximately equal to y. • Three basic types of carbohydrates are monosaccharide, disaccharides and polysaccharides
Monosaccharide • Monosaccharide also called simple sugar • The common monosaccharide are six-carbon sugar with a molecular formula of C6H12O6 • Example of monosaccharide are glucose, fructose (fruit sugar) and galactose • Glucose is the most common monosaccharide and respiratory substrate • Monosaccharide are sweet-tasting crystalline substances which are soluble in water
Disaccharides • Disaccharides are formed from two monosaccharide molecules combining together with the elements of a molecule of water. The chemical reaction of the formation is known as condensation. • The general formula of a disaccharides is C12H22O11 • Disaccharides also called double sugar. • Disaccharides can be broken down to their constituent monosaccharide by a chemical reaction involving the addition of water. The reaction is know as hydrolysis.
Condensation + + H2 O water Hydrolysis C12H22O11 sucrose C6H12O6 glucose C6H12O6 fructose • Like monosaccharide, they are sweet-tasting crystalline substances that are soluble in water. • The most common disaccharides are maltose, lactose and sucrose.
Condensation + + H2 O water Hydrolysis C12H22O11 maltose C6H12O6 glucose C6H12O6 glucose Condensation Condensation + + + H2 O water + H2 O water Hydrolysis Hydrolysis C12H22O11 sucrose C12H22O11 lactose C6H12O6 glucose C6H12O6 glucose C6H12O6 fructose C6H12O6 galactose
Polysaccharides • Many monosaccharide molecules join together in a condensation reaction (with the removal of water molecules) to form a large polysaccharides molecules. • Polymerisation is the process of condensing many individual monosaccharide molecules to form a large polysaccharides molecules. • In polymerisation, the individual monosaccharide molecule are called monomers. • Polymerisation of monosaccharide forms: • Glycogen – in humans and animals • Starch and cellulose – in plants
glucose Starch structure • Sub unit: Glucose • Consists of two components. • Unbranched, helical chains of glucose units • Branched chains of glucose units • Major storage of carbohydrate in plants
glucose glycogen • Sub unit: Glucose • Molecules with many side branches • Major storage of carbohydrates in animals and fungi, for • examples, in muscle cells and liver cells
glucose cellulose Straight unbranched chain of glucose units Plant cell wall
Proteins • Proteins are compounds of these element: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen sulphur and phosphorus. • Amino acids are the subunits of all proteins. • Each amino acids carries two functional group: • A carboxyl group (- COOH) which is acidic and • An amino group (-NH2) which is basic. COOH carboxyl group C NH2 amino group
h H2O O h Peptide bond cooh Hn c n C C c c NH2 hooc nh2 hooc condensation • Two amino acids can combine together to form a dipeptideby a condensation reaction between the carboxyl group of one and the amino group of the other. The resulting a bond liking the two amino acids that is called a peptide bond.
LIPIDS • Lipids a diverse group of substance that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The proportion of oxygen is lower than that in carbohydrates. For example, the general formula of stearic acid is C18H36O2. • All lipids are insoluble in water • Lipids dissolve readily in other lipids and in organic solvent such as ether and ethanol. • The main types of lipids are: • Fats • Oils • Waxes • Phospholipids • steroids
Condensation (- H2O) + Hydrolysis (+ H2O) glycerol 3 fatty acids molecules Triglyceride + 3 water molecules Fats and oils • Fats are solid at room temperature (20°C), whereas oil are liquid • Each molecule of fats or oils is made up of one glycerol combine with three fatty acids which may be the same or may be different. Three molecule of water are remove in this condensation reaction.
Fats and oils function efficiently as energy storage material. Fats and oils provide 38kJ per gram, while carbohydrates can provide only 17 kJ per gram.
Waxes • Waxes are similar to triglycerides, but the fatty acids are bonded to long-chain alcohols rather than glycerol • Waxes are usually hard solids at room temperature • Waxes are used to waterproof the external surface of plants and animal. The cuticle of a leaf and the protective covering on an insect’s body are made of waxes. • Wax is also a constituent of the honeycomb of bees
Phospholipids • Phospholipids have a similar structure to triglycerides but one of the fatty acids is replaced by a phosphate group • The end of the phospholipids molecule containing the phosphate group is hydrophilic. The other end containing the hydrocarbon chain of the fatty acids is hydrophobic. • The hydrophilic end is soluble in water while hydrophobic is insoluble in water. • Phospholipids bilayer from the basis of all cell membrane.
Steroids • A steroid molecule has a complex ring structure • Steroid occur in plants and animals • Examples of steroids are cholesterol, testosterone, estrogen and progesterone.
Saturated and and saturated fats • Animal fats such as lard, butter and cream are example of saturated fats • Vegetable oil such as olive oil and sunflower oil are example of unsaturated fats.
ENZYMES • Enzymes are protein molecules act as biological catalysts. They speed up the rate of metabolic reactions and do not chemically changed at the end of the reaction • The substance whose reactivity is increased by an enzymes is knowing as a substrate