Download
plant of the day n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Plant of the day PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Plant of the day

Plant of the day

179 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Plant of the day

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Plant of the day Purple foxglove

  2. Chapter 2 - Chemistry

  3. Atomic structure

  4. Ions

  5. Water is a solvent of polar molecules

  6. Biological molecules • Carbohydrates • Lipids • Proteins • Nucleic acids

  7. From monomers to polymers

  8. Cellulose

  9. Cellulose products

  10. Secondary metabolites • Produced in small amounts • Can be very complex (chemically)

  11. Why do plants produce secondary metabolites? • Attractants • Pollinators • Pigments, scents • Seed dispersal

  12. Why do plants produce secondary metabolites? • Deter predators

  13. Secondary metabolites as chemoprotectants • Saponins and fungal resistance • avenicin

  14. Milkweed produces a cardiac glycoside

  15. Heliconius larvae tolerate cyanogenic glycosides in passion vine

  16. Volicitin link

  17. -ecdysone • An insect growth hormone

  18. Cotton produces gossypol trichomes

  19. Phytoecdysones promote molting

  20. Secondary metabolites used by humans • Alkaloids • Over 5000 known kinds • 20% of all plants produce alkaloids • Acts on CNS

  21. Alkaloids • Capsaicin link

  22. Capsaicin binds to neurons link

  23. Alkaloids • Poppy • Codeine • Morphine

  24. Alkaloids • Nicotine • Rust inhibitor • Insecticide

  25. Alkaloids • Ephedrine Ephedra – Mormon tea plant

  26. Alkaloids • Vinblastine & vincristine • Madagascar periwinkle • Anti-cancer drugs • 53 tons of leaves to produce 100g drug

  27. Alkaloids • Quinine (feverbark tree) • Anti-malarial • 2-3 million deaths per year

  28. Alkaloids • Reserpine (Snakeroot) • Similar to serotonin • Used to treat schizophrenia & LSD patients ( a brain depressant/tranquilizer)

  29. Alkaloid poisons • D-tubocurarine (Curare) • Blocks acetylcholine receptors • Paralyzes muscles, including respiratory organs & heart

  30. Alkaloid poisons • Coniine (hemlock) • Taxine (yew) • Solanine (potato)

  31. Terpenes • Lipid-based • Many types secreted by trichomes

  32. Terpenes • Essential oils • Citronellol • Camphor • Mints (Mentha)

  33. Essential oils • Menthol (Eucalyptus)

  34. Terpenes • Pyrethrins

  35. Terpenes • Sterols (hormones) • Phyto-ecdysones

  36. Terpenes • Taxol • Anti-cancer (ovarian) • 0.7g taxol per mature tree • $250,000 per kg

  37. Phenolics • Salicin • Aspirin precursor

  38. Phenolics • Resveratrol • Heart disease, cancer • Phyto-estrogen

  39. Phenolics • Vanillin

  40. Glycosides • Sugar attached to a terpene • Categories • Cardiac glycosides • Cyanogenic glycosides • Saponins

  41. Cardiac glycosides • Steroid-based, Stimulates heart • Digitoxin • Used since 1640AD as a heart medication • #1 congestive heart failure drug • 3 million patients/yr (U.S.)

  42. Cardiac glycosides • Oleandrin • Oleander – an ornamental shrub • Causes cardiac arrest

  43. Cyanogenic glycosides • Release cyanide (HCN) • Passion vine • Pit fruits link

  44. Saponins • Diosgenin • Toxic, steroid-based

  45. Saponins • Diosgenin – precursor of progesterone and cortisone • Link 1 • Link 2

  46. Saponins • Ginseng • Stomach disorders • Nervous disorders