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PARTS OF THE PLANT PowerPoint Presentation
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PARTS OF THE PLANT

PARTS OF THE PLANT

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PARTS OF THE PLANT

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  1. Roselyn Aperocho-Naranjo Pharmacy Instructor USPF, College of Pharmacy PARTS OF THE PLANT

  2. Anatomy of the Leaf

  3. What are the layers of the Leaf? set of cells forming the upper and lower layers of a leaf thin superficial skin of a leaf set of cells forming the central layer of a leaf outer layer of the leaf line outlining a leaf division organ of the leaf that allows the exchange of gases part of the stoma lower layer of the leaf

  4. What are the parts of the plant responsible for the gas exchange?

  5. Photosynthesis

  6. What are the substances responsible for the color of the leaf? • Four leaf pigments are responsible for leaf color and its changes in during autumn: • chlorophylls, • carotenoids, • tannins, and • anthocyanins.

  7. What are the substances responsible for the color of the leaf? Chlorophyll • located in organelles called chloroplasts • gives leaves green color • absorbs the sun's radiant energy and is necessary for photosynthesis • carbon dioxide and water are transformed to sugars • During the growing season, chlorophyll is continually being produced and destroyed and leaves appear green.

  8. What are the substances responsible for the color of the leaf? Anthocyanins • responsible for the pink and purple leaves of sugar and red maple, sassafras, sumac, white and scarlet oak, winged euonymus, dogwood, sourwood, some oaks, and many other woody plants • also give color to cranberries, red apples, concord grapes, blueberries, cherries, strawberries, and plums • are formed when sugars combine with complex compounds called anthocyanidins • this is influenced mainly by cell pH • usually not present until they are produced in the autumn

  9. What are the substances responsible for the color of the leaf? Carotenoids • responsible for the yellow and orange colors in leaves and also appear in such plants as corn, carrots, daffodils, rutabagas, buttercups, and bananas • located in the chloroplasts and assist chlorophyll in the capture of sunlight for photosynthesis

  10. What are the substances responsible for the color of the leaf? Tannins • responsible for the brown hues in the leaves of some oaks and other trees • golden yellow in some leaves such as beech are a result of tannins being present along with the yellow carotenoid pigments • always present in the leaves, but only become visible as chlorophyll ad carotenoids disappear from leaves • are bitter substances responsible for the color and flavor of tea • are common waste products of tree metabolism, deposited in the cell sap inside the vacuole as well as in cell walls

  11. ANATOMY OF THE STEM is responsible for the aboveground structure of the plant, and is involved in both structural support and vascular transport.

  12. THE STEM the tissue layers : A layer of reproductive cells called the cork cambium produces new cork cells to replace or reinforce the oldcells dead center of the woody stem in which conducting elements of xylem are clogged with tannins and resin, and no longer function to conduct fluids. outer covering of the stem of woody plants, composed of waterproof cork cells protecting a layer of food-conducting tissue—the phloem or inner bark (also called bast). external ring of xylem still conducting fluids

  13. THE ROOTS Root systems may be divided into two broad types: TAPROOTSand FIBROUS ROOTS: TAPROOTS FIBROUS ROOTS

  14. THE ROOTS Root systems may be divided into two broad types: TAPROOTSand FIBROUS ROOTS: Taproots are large single roots that have smaller roots extending from them. Taproots of some species store water and food. Species that have taproots include carrots, radishes and dandelions. TAPROOTS

  15. THE ROOTS Root systems may be divided into two broad types: TAPROOTSand FIBROUS ROOTS: Taproots are large single roots that have smaller roots extending from them. Taproots of some species store water and food. Species that have taproots include carrots, radishes and dandelions. FIBROUS ROOTS

  16. THE ROOTS they may act as anchorage, storage organs, an absorption network for water and nutrients, and form a symbiosis with root inhabiting fungi. They also affect their environment by leaking carbohydrates and other organic molecules, altering soil pH, filtering toxins and accumulating rare elements, providing mechanical structure in the soil and creating lines for water movement (percolines). Root hair Root Cap

  17. THE ROOTS Roots may be classified into primary, secondary and tertiary roots:

  18. THE ROOT root-like structures: It looks superficially like roots, are actually developed from stems. They extend underground and develop shoots at the surface. Rhizomes connect apparently separate plants in a living network. Rhizome (indicated by arrow)

  19. THE ROOT root-like structures: It arise from nodes near ground level on the stem, rhizome (as in the diagram above) or stolon: they are roots that do not arise from the principal root system. Adventitious roots growing from rhizome

  20. THE ROOT root-like structures: CORM is a piece of swollen tissue: they may be stem-corms or root-corms depending on the tissue of origin. A corm survives between seasons in a dormant state. STOLON is developed from a shoot. It is a specialised horizontal above-ground shoot, and a colonising organ that develops from an axillary bud, and near the base of the plant. Adventitious roots often develop from the stolon. E

  21. THE ROOT root-like structures: BULB A true bulb differs from a corm and a tuber in that it contains 5 major parts: the basal plate (bottom of bulb where roots develop), fleshy storage tissue, the tunic (skin-like covering protecting the fleshy tissue), the developing shoot, and lateral buds. TUBERS differs from a true bulb and a corm by not having a basal plate from which roots develop. It does not have a protective tunic covering. It may be formed from a stem or a root.

  22. THE FLOWER The stigma is the sticky surface at the top of the pistil; it traps and holds the pollen.  The style is the tube-like structure that holds up the stigma.  The style leads down to the ovary that contains the ovules.   The anthers carry the pollen.  These are generally yellow in color.  Anthers are held up by a thread-like part called the filament. are the green petal-like parts at the base of the flower.  Sepals help protect the developing bud.   The anthers carry the pollen.  These are generally yellow in color.  Anthers are held up by a thread-like part called the filament.

  23. THE FLOWER Reproduction through the Male & Female Organs of the flower, namely Pistil or Carpel and Stamen. Reproduction begins during Pollination process.

  24. THE FLOWER The Pollination Process

  25. THE FLOWER The Pollination Process

  26. THE FLOWER The Pollination Process