Functions of Roots: 1. To take in oxygen during respiration. 2. To give off carbon dioxide during respiration.
3. To store food in the form of starch (like the taproot of a carrot). 4. To anchor the plant and keep it in a stable position.
5. To absorb and tranport water and nutrients to the stem via the root hairs. 6. In legumes, such as clover, the roots play an important role in the nitrogen fixation process. ( Bacteria live in the root nodules and work to “fix” nitrogen for the plant).
Functions of Leaves: 1. Inportant for photosynthesis (the process by which plants produce their food). 2. Aid in the process of transpiration (water loss through leaves) which is necessary in order for plants to cool themselves.
3. Leaves can make some food which can later be stored in other areas of the plant. (Potato) 4. Sometimes, leaves can be used in asexual or vegetative propagation. (cuttings)
Functions of Stems: 1. Move nutrients from the roots to the leaves in the vessels of the xylem and phloem. 2. Supports the leaves of the plant as well as the fruit and flowers.
3. In some plants, stems function as asource of food storage for the plant. Tuber (Potato) Rhizome (Asparagus) Bulb (Tulip)
4. Primary plant growth occurs in the tip of the stem (the terminal bud). 5. Stems can often be used for vegetative propagation.
Functions of Fruit: 1. Protect the seeds inside the ripened ovule (fruit). 2. Provide nutrients to the soil and to a newly germinated seedling.
3. Aid in the spreading of seed by providing food for animals. Animals eat the fruit and seeds. After the fruit is digested, the seeds pass out in the animal’s faeces at another location.
4. Some plants have dry, dehiscent fruitswhich split open to spread seeds.
Functions of Flowers: 1. Needed for plant reproduction. 2. Pollination of the flower leads to the fertilization of the ovules.
3. The colourful and / or fragrant nature of the flower attracts insects and birds that aid in the pollination process.
4. The flower can also serve as an animal trap. Once the insect is trapped, it can be digested by the plant for food. (Venus Fly Trap)