Functions of Plant Parts: An introduction to our exciting exploration of botany
Lesson Objectives: • Identify major internal structures, external structures, methods of locomotion, methods of reproduction and stages of development of plants: flower pistil style filament pollen fruit ovary anther roots stem leaves stomata xylem phloem transpiration node
Plants • The plant kingdom is divided into both nonvascular and vascular plants.
Vascular • Plants that have specialized tissues that move materials through the plant’s body and provides strength, stability and support to the plant.
Non-vascular • They are low growing and do not have roots. They obtain water and nutrients directly from their surroundings.
Roots- the part of a plant that has no leaves or buds and usually spreads underground, anchoring the plant and absorbing water and nutrients from the soil
Roots: » Absorb and translocate water and nutrients to the stem that are taken up through the root hairs » Store food in the form of starch
Plant Tropisms • Tropismis the movement of all or part of an organism in response to an external stimulus, such as light. • Plant growth toward a stimulus is a a positive tropism. • Plant growth away from a stimulus is a negative tropism.
The Leaf: »The place where photosynthesis takes place. »The place that carries out transpiration and cools the plant.
Stomata (singular, stoma) are openings in a leaf or stem that enable gas exchange to occur. • Each stoma is opened and closed by two guard cells. • Transpiration is the process by which plants release water vapor into the air through stomata. If too much water is lost, a plant wilts.
Stem • Transport nutrients from the roots to the leaves in the vessels of the XYLEM and PHLOEM. • Supports the leaves of a plant and also the fruit and flowers
There are two types of vascular tissue in plants: • Xylem is the type of tissue in vascular plants that provides support and conducts water and nutrients from the roots. • Phloem is the tissue that conducts food in vascular plants.
Gymnosperm • seeds not enclosed in an ovary.
Angiosperm • a plant having its seeds enclosed in an ovary; a flowering plant.
Flower power: » Flower: The reproductive structure of some seed-bearing plants, characteristically having either specialized male or female organs or both male and female organs, enclosed in an outer envelope of petals and sepals.
If you look carefully at a flower, you will see that it is made up of many different parts. Each part has an important job to do.
Sepals sepal The sepals protect the flower before it opens.
Petals • The petals attract pollinating insects with their bright colour and attractive scent.
Stamens anther stamen • Thestamens are the male part of the flower. • The plant makes pollen in the part of the stamen called the anther.
Anther • the pollen-bearing part of a stamen.
Pollen • the fertilizing element of flowering plants, consisting of fine, powdery, yellowish grains or spores, sometimes in masses.
Filament • The stalk that bears the anther in a stamen.
Pistil • the female ovule-bearing part of a flower composed of ovary and style and stigma
The Stigma stigma • The stigma is the top of the female part of the flower. • The pollen from another flower collects on the stigma’s sticky surface.
The Ovary pollen • The ovary protects the ovules (eggs). • Pollen travels to the ovules and fertilization takes place. • Now the ovules will develop into seeds. ovary ovule
Style • slender part of a pistil, situated between the ovary and the stigma.
Fabulous fruit functions: » The fruit is a ripened ovule together with its associated parts, and often protects the seed. » Some plants have a dry dehiscent fruit which, when split open helps disseminate seeds. a) some actually hurl the seeds out as the seed surface explodes b) others have wings, or other ways to float or be carried by air
Can always use more fruit… » Can provide nutrients to the soil and to a newly germinating seedling » Some fruits help disperse seeds by providing food for animals: a) animals eat the fruit and seeds. The fruit is digested and the seeds pass out in the animals’ feces at (presumably) another location. Like this nice Big buck
Seed • A mature fertilized ovule of angiosperms and gymnosperms that contains an embryo and the food it will need to grow into a new plant.
Germination • to begin to grow or develop.
Write the correct words in the boxes:stamens, stigma, petals, ovary, sepals pollen sticks to this where the seeds grow where the pollen is made these attract insects These protect the flower before it opens