Uncovering 19th- Century Liberalism
Key Concepts • Examining the history of classical liberalism • Analyzing the impact of the evolution of classical liberalism on society
Overview • New Ideas about human potential and individual worth • Governments friendly to business and innovation • Investment capital and cheap labour • The free market and limited role for government • Laissez-faire capitalism
Key Terms • Class system • Enlightenment • Free market • Industrialization • Laissez-faire capitalism • Limited government • Traditional economy • Economic Freedom • John Locke • John Stuart Mill • Montesquieu • Adam Smith • Thomas Hobbes
Timeline that eventually combined to form classical liberalism • the five principles of classical liberalismp 105-106p107
The basic principles of Liberalism(which can be applied to the social, economic and political structures of society) Personal freedom: refers to the absence of coercion (force) and includes free speech, religious liberty, the right to private property, and the right to political opposition Limited government: means that the state (government) is an instrument serving a function in society. Equality of Right: all must abide by the same laws, which the government enforces with impartiality Belief in the Rule of Law –no one is above the law. Consent of the governed: Government is responsible to people and may be changed by them
Classical Liberalism • traditional liberalism, laissez-faire liberalism • stressing individual freedom, free markets, and limited government • equality under the law, constitutional limitation of government, free markets , limited government intervention • it is the fusion of economic liberalism with political liberalism of the late 18th and 19th centuries (the Industrial revolution) • classical liberalism is the idea that laissez-faire economics will bring about a spontaneous order or invisible hand that benefits the society
Liberalism • Advocates civil rights for all people • Equal treatment of all citizens irrespective of race, gender and class. • In the USA many social liberals favor affirmative action. • affirmative action (a policy designed to redress past discrimination against women and minority groups through measures to improve their economic and educational opportunities)
What forces and beliefs stimulated the development of classical Liberalism? • We will explore the history of liberalism. You will examine the societies, events and individuals that contributed to the development of liberalism a major ideology. • This will help you to understand why the early forms of liberalism had evolved and have been modified through time.
Creation of Liberal Movement notes • Political Aspects • Born out of ideas of the philosophers (Enlightenment) • Economic aspects • Evolved out of the ideas of the industrial revolution • The fusion of economic liberalism and political liberalism in the 15th ,16th and 17th centuries (the industrial revolution).
Thinkers whose ideas contributed to the ideology of economic, social and political liberalism • Thomas Hobbes • John Locke • Baron de Montesquieu • John Stuart Mill • Adam Smith • Aboriginal Contributions
1755 Lisbon Earthquake • The earthquake and its fallout strongly influenced the intellectuals of the European Age of Enlightenment. • Voltaire used the earthquake in satire and in his Poèmesur le désastre de Lisbonne ("Poem on the Lisbon disaster"). • Voltaire's satirically attacks the notion that all is for the best in this, "the best of all possible worlds", a world closely supervised by a benevolent deity. • Qestioningblind faith in god and the fatalism that the then-dominant philosophy of “Optimism” engendered • The Lisbon disaster provided a salutary counterexample • In the later twentieth century, the disaster has been compared to the Holocaust as a catastrophe that transformed European culture and philosophy. • Jean-Jacques Rousseau was also influenced by the devastation following the earthquake, whose severity he believed was due to too many people living within the close quarters of the city. Rousseau used the earthquake as an argument against cities as part of his desire for a more naturalistic way of life.
Since the earthquake took place on All Saints’ Day and destroyed most of the city’s major churches, reactionary priests blamed the destruction on Lisbon’s supposed sins. • Inquisitors literally roamed the streets looking for heretics to hang. But the grip of the dead hand of the medieval church on society was weakening and eventually broke. • Coming at a time when bourgeois forces were growing strong enough to burst the straitjacket of feudalism, the Lisbon disaster played a key role in the Enlightenment, intellectual forerunner for the French Revolution of 1789-1804.
History of Classical Liberalism John Locke Baron Montesquieu John Stuart Mill Adam Smith Jean-Jacques Rousseau Thomas Hobbes
Assignment • Word document • Identify principles of liberalism that have remained constant over time. • Compare on historical philosophers from group A and one contemporary figure from group B • Make sure to compare and contrast the two writers under the following principles and values of liberalism • Individual rights and freedoms • Self-interest • Competition • Economic freedom • Rule of law
Identify principles of LiberalismAssignment The term liberalism has had different meanings to historical and contemporary contexts. Despite the changes over time, liberalism as an ideology has retained some core principles and values that reflect a particular view of human nature and the role of governments in society. Your challenge will be in two parts. First to compare and contrast the two writers (one from A the other from B) under the 5 principles and values of liberalism. Second to identify principles and values of liberalism that have remained constant over time. Group A Historical Group B Contemporary John Locke James Tobin (economist) John Stuart Mill Pierre Trudeau Jeremy Bentham Tommy Douglas Adam Smith John Kenneth Galbraith Montesquieu John Maynard Keynes Iroquois Confederacy John F. Kennedy Milton Friedman Chief Clarence Louis
Group A Historical Group B Contemporary John Locke James Tobin (economist) Keynesian John Stuart Mill Pierre Trudeau (liberalism federalist) Jeremy Bentham (social reformer) Tommy Douglas (NDP) Adam Smith John Kenneth Galbraith (economist FDR supporter) Montesquieu John Maynard Keynes Iroquois Confederacy John F. Kennedy Milton Friedman Chief Clarence Louis
Creation of the Liberal Movement • Economic Aspects • Evolved out of the ideas of the industrial revolution
Laissez-Faire Economics • Traditional economy; based on subsistence farming in rural areas, which shifted to factories and urban centers. • Mercantilism is an economic theory that there is a fixed amount of wealth in the world and that a nation's prosperity depends on its success in accumulating wealth by exporting more than it imports. European nations of the 17th-19th centuries attempted to put it into effect through commercial policies designed to produce a favourable balance of trade, through acquisition and development of colonies as exclusive markets and sources of raw materials. D:\source\mm\m2\ss30_1_m2_004\ss30_1_m2_004.html
The influence of Liberalism on Capitalism • Economic freedom, individual freedom, private property and completion. • Technological developments led to mechanization as individual entrepreneurs and inventors tried to be more efficient and profitable. • Innovation flourished
Economic Policy (a shift) Mercantilism Capitalism There is open competition Private property is guaranteed. There is economic freedom It is believed that self-interest will make the nation profitable. The power of the government ito intervene in the economy is limited. • The goal is for the nation and the monarch to acquire as much wealth as possible. • There is very little competition. • Nations exploit other, smaller countries. • The government has the power to intervene in the economy.
Economic Change1776 Wealth of Nation (Scottish Economist Adam Smith build on the physiocrat’s ideas of Laissez-fair economics) The invisible hand is most often assumed to work is the free market. Adam Smith assumed that consumers choose for the lowest price, and that entrepreneurs choose for the highest rate of profit. He asserted that by thus making their excess or insufficient demand known through market prices, consumers "directed" entrepreneurs' investment money to the most profitable industry. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cD0dmRJ0oWg&feature=related Michael Moore schooled on economics by Milton Friedman
Smith Believed • People instinctively see what is best for them • Self-interest should be freely expressed in an environment of unlimited competition: (a free market system) • Natural interplay between buyers and sellers and workers and employers would ultimately insure that goods were produced efficiently and economically. • Government meddling in the economy not be necessary. • Competition between consumers for products, between businesses for consumer dollars, between workers for jobs, and between employers for skilled workers would make the economy regulated. Process is known as the invisible e hand. • As individuals strove to better their own economic situation, the economy of the nation as a whole wold also benefit.
Invisible Hand • Man is motivated by self-interest
Basics of Liberal Democracyworksheet principles of Liberal Democracy, complete worksheet and hand in. Use pg. 71-79 and 105-107
Ideological Perspectives under Liberalism • Handout on ideology / spectrums • file:///D:/source/mm/m2/ss30_1_m2_001/ss30_1_m2_001.html (remember need disk in computer) • Check your understanding by evaluating the following cartoons. • file:///D:/source/mm/m2/ss30_1_m2_002/ss30_1_m2_002.html
Proponents of Liberalism • John Locke and John Stuart Mill believed human beings are equal and independent. • They believed that humans have certain inalienable rights such as the right to life, liberty, equality and ownership of property.
Conservatism • The belief that individuals and society have a moral responsibility to respect past traditions, customs and habits. ( Status Quo” • When individuals and society wish to make reforms, they must be slow and gradual. • Belief that society should be structured in a hierarchical fashion.
Proponent of Conservatism • Edmund Burke believed society should be structured in a hierarchy with those best suited to leadership at the top, because people do not have equal abilities. • Government should be chosen by a limited electorate with special rights, responsibilities, and privileges.
Thinkers whose ideas contributed to the ideology of Liberalism p.102-112 . Handout
Summary of What We Have Looked At • What forces and beliefs stimulate the development of classical liberalism. • You examined philosophers’ who contributed to classical liberalism. • Classical liberalism emphasized the political power of the people and the importance of individual liberty. • Classical liberalism also limited government intervention in the economy • Classical liberal philosophers tended to focus heavily on the freedom to make money
TO SUM UP • Liberalism can be applied to the broad set of values associated with democracy. The word liberal is associated with a narrower interpretation of how those values should be implemented. • At the other end of the political spectrum is the conservative interpretation of how a liberal democracy should function
EXPLAINING LIBERALISM TO OTHERS • YOUR TASK • Present in a unique and engaging way the information you have learned so far about liberalism. • Spoof on liberalism • Google hinterland who's who spoofs • Create a spoof of your own. Your public service advertisement will describe the family of “creatures” known as “Liberalists” (libertaspatronus) and the major subsets or subspecies who exist within that larger family. Be sure to provide information about identifying characteristics, typical habits, natural enemies, and so on. • Final format can be a short video, a podcast, a narrated slide show, an audio recoding or a series of posters
How Did Liberalism Originate? • The challenges of classical liberalism! • When put into practice there were both positive and negative impacts. • Societies adapted classical liberalism • To meet the challenges created by unrestricted laissez-fair capitalism. • The question is why did classical liberalism change?
What do these points of view have in common? Where do they differ? • Both reflect the conditions of the working class. • Dickens: • Negative view of the I.R. & its impact on workers; deplorable state of the cities & oppressive social & working conditions. • Ricardo: • Positive view; as he sees the laws of economics at work. His view is based on laissez-faire capitalism
Historical Development of European Ideas And Events That Combined to Form Classical Liberalism. • Significant Historical Events Through Paintings and pictures Political change: the government of the day was lacking in the ability to govern, therefore policy changes had to be enacted by a new administration.
The Storming of the Bastille http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-zPTFGLHavQ
The French RevolutionThe Storming of the Bastille • Nationalist movement • Liberal movement • Rejected divine right of kings • In favour of rule by a government of people. • Replaced a social and governmental system on heredity and privilege with a system based on equality. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-zPTFGLHavQ
Quotes about Liberalism and the French Revolution • Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1712 - 1778 How is each quote an example of Liberalism? • "Man was born free, and everywhere he is in chains.“ • I prefer liberty with danger than peace with slavery” • “To renounce liberty is to renounce being a man, to surrender the rights of humanity and even its duties” • Force does not constitute right... obedience is due only to legitimate powers.” • “Liberty is obedience to the law which one has laid down for oneself”
Check your understanding • Using a chart format, connect each of the five principles of classical liberalism listed on p.105 with the eight sections of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of citizens listed on p.115 and 118.
Connect Classical Liberalism and the Declaration of the Rights of Man