Interrupters • Words or phrases that can be taken out of a sentence without changing the meaning of the sentence. • They must be set off from the rest of the sentence with commas.
Rule #1 • Use commas to set off an expression that interrupts a sentence. • Two commas are needed if the expression is in the middle of the sentence. One comma is needed if the expression comes first or last. • Examples: • Ann Myers, our neighbor, is a fine golfer. • Naturally, we expect to win. • My answer is correct, I think.
Rule #2 • Use commas to set off nonessential participial phrases and nonessential subordinate clauses. • A nonessential phrase or clause adds information that is not needed to understand the basic meaning of the sentence. It can be removed without changing the main idea of the sentence. • Examples: • My sister, listening to her radio, did not hear me. • The Wizard of Oz, which I saw again last week, is my favorite movie.
Rule #3 • Use commas to set off nonessential appositives and nonessential appositive phrases. • An appositive is a noun or pronoun used to identify or describe another noun or pronoun. • Examples: • My oldest sister, Alicia, will be at basketball practice tonight. • Jamaica, a popular island for tourists, is in the Caribbean Sea. • May I introduce you to Vernon, my cousin from Jamaica?
Rule #4 • Use commas to set off words of direct address. • These are words or phrases that show you are speaking directly to someone. • Example: • Ben, please answer the doorbell. • Mom needs you, Francine. • Would you show me, ma’am, where the craft store is?
Practice • Mom where are my shoes? • My dog Cody is very friendly. • After we lost the game our coach was not happy. • Yesterday as a matter of fact Susan was 20 minutes late.
Group Work • In your envelopes, there are sentences that have been cut up. • Place the words, phrases, and punctuation in the correct order. • Get it checked by your teacher before you put it back in the envelope.
Exit Slip • When an interrupter occurs in the middle of the sentence, how many commas do you use? • When an interrupter occurs at the beginning or end of a sentence, how many commas do you use? • Correct the following: • The character Sabrina is Josie’s favorite.