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TRAnslational research in Clinical Oncology (TRACO)

TRAnslational research in Clinical Oncology (TRACO). Program Director. Terry W. Moody, Ph.D. (301) 451-9451 FAX: (301) 480-4323 Bldg. 31, Rm. 4A48. Organizing Committee. Irwin Arias Terry Moody Lyuba Vartikovski Jonathan Wiest Farah Zia. SYLLABUS. DATE TOPIC SPEAKERS

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TRAnslational research in Clinical Oncology (TRACO)

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  1. TRAnslational research in Clinical Oncology (TRACO)

  2. Program Director Terry W. Moody, Ph.D. (301) 451-9451 FAX: (301) 480-4323 Bldg. 31, Rm. 4A48

  3. Organizing Committee Irwin Arias Terry Moody Lyuba Vartikovski Jonathan Wiest Farah Zia

  4. SYLLABUS DATETOPICSPEAKERS Sept. 10 Introduction, Lung Cancer Moody, Giaccone Sept. 17 NO CLASS Sept. 24 Ovarian Cancer, Prostate CancerAnnunziata, Gulley Oct. 1 Lymphoma, Topoisomerases Wilson, Pommier Oct. 11 HIV, TGF betaMaldarelli, Jakowlew

  5. SYLLABUS, continued DATETOPIC SPEAKERS Oct. 15Breast Cancer, Small Molecules Zia, Marugan Oct. 22 Tumor Imaging, Cancer DisparitiesChoyke, Ambs Oct. 29 Cancer Stem Cells, Epidemiology Salomon, Caporaso Nov. 5 Radiation Oncology, AngiogenesisCamphausen, Zudaire Nov. 15RNAi, Cancer Epigenetics Caplen, Verma

  6. SYLLABUS, continued DATETOPICSPEAKERS Nov. 20 Cervical Cancer, Case ReportSchiller, Olaku Nov. 26Inflammation, Lung CancerHarris, Szabo Dec. 3 Genomics, Colon cancerKhan, Young Dec. 13 Nanotechnology, Pancreatic cancerDoborvatskaia, Hussain

  7. REGISTRATION The course is open to all interested personnel without charge. Registration is available at the NCI CCR Web site: http://ccr.cancer.gov/careers/courses/traco/registration/default.aspx

  8. CCR component Registrants can attend tumorboards, grand rounds, visit technology and/or core facilities. Please contact Dr. Moody, if interested to make appropriate reservations.

  9. COURSE CERTIFICATION Registrants can obtain a course certificate upon passing a computer graded final examination.

  10. Lung, colon, breast and prostate cancer account for half of the U.S. cancer mortalities. TYPE INCIDENCE (MORTALITY) Lung 171,900 (157,200) Colon/Rectum 147,500 (57,100) Breast 211,300 (39,800) Prostate 220,900 (28,900) Others 582,500 (273,500) Total 1,334,100 (556,500) Jemal, Ward and Thun, “Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology.” Edited by DeVita, Hellman and Rosenberg. (2006), pp. 226-241

  11. Cancers which kill 10,000-30,000 U.S. patients annually include: • Pancreatic cancer • Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma • Leukemia • Stomach cancer • Ovarian cancer • Brain cancer • Liver cancer • Bladder cancer • Esophageal cancer • Kidney cancer

  12. Cancer risks include: • Alcohol • Asbestos • Diet • Familial • Hormones

  13. Cancer risks (continued) • Obesity • Ion Radiation • Tobacco • U.V. Radiation • Viral

  14. Lung Cancer kills over 150,000 patients in the U.S. annually. • There are 45 Million current smokers and 45 Million ex-smokers in the U.S. • It is difficult to quit smoking due to nicotine addiction.

  15. Carcinogens which have been identified in cigarette smoke include: • Polyaeromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), • aza-arenes, • 4(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), • 1,3 butadiene, • ethyl carbamate, • ethylene oxide, • nickel, chromium, cadmium, • polonium, arsenic • hydrazine

  16. The process by which unreactive carcinogen converts to a form which binds DNA is known as metabolic activation. • Bay region diol epoxides are the principal PAH metabolites involved in DNA adduct formation. For Benz[a]pyrene (BaP), BaP-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) forms adducts with DNA leading to G:C>T:A mutations in pulmonary DNA. The genes for p53 and k-ras are frequently mutated.

  17. BENZ(a)Pyrene●The chemical structure of BaP is shown.

  18. BaP is metabolized by enzymes to BPDE. BaPP450sBap-7,8-oxideEpoxide hydrolaseBaP-7,8-diolP450sBPDEDNABPDE-N2-dGAcid hydrolysisBP-tetraolBoysen and Hecht, Mutation Res. 543:17(2003).

  19. Carcinogens can be detoxified and excreted prior to DNA damage. • Cytochrome p450 enzymes catalyze addition of an oxygen to the carcinogen, increasing its water solubility. ● Phase 2 enzymes convert the oxygenated carcinogen to a form that is highly soluble in water, converting it to a form that can be excreted.

  20. DNA is mutated if the rate of carcinogen activation exceeds the rate of carcinogen detoxification and/or DNA repair. • DNA adducts as well as intra- and interstrand DNA crosslinks are removed by nucleotide excision repair.

  21. P53, a tumor suppressor gene: ●mediates the G1 to S-phase checkpoint of the cell cycle, ●drives programmed cell death or apoptosis after DNA damage, ●is increased along with p21 (cell cycle checkpoint) after DNA damage. ● Phosphorylated p53 induces expression of BAX (apoptosis), GADD45 (DNA repair) and thrombospondin (angiogenesis)

  22. P53 mutations are detected in most of the lung cancer patients. • G to T transversions occur at the CpG rich codons including 153-158 (exon 5), 248 and 249 (exon7) and 273 (exon 8) of the p53 gene. There is an excess of G to T transversions in smokers relative to non-smokers.

  23. P53 mutations

  24. Cell cycle phases.

  25. p53 mediates the G1 to S-phase checkpoint of the cell cycle ●DNAdamage increases p21 and p53. ●P53 drives programmed cell death or apoptosis after DNA damage

  26. Cell cycle enzymes

  27. Genotoxicity of tobacco smoke. ●After 10 years of chronic cigarette smoking, normal lung tissue can undergo hyperplasia and metaplasia. ●After 15 years, dysplasia can result. ●After 20 years, a carcinoma in situ can form. ●After 25 years, a malignant cancer can form.

  28. Carcinogenesis●Cancer progression occurs over a period of decades.

  29. Normal lung●Carbon dioxide is exhaled from the lung whereas oxygen is inhaled.

  30. Hyperplasia●After exposure to tobacco smoke, hyperplasia can result.

  31. DysplasiaContinued exposure to tobacco smoke leads to dysplasia.

  32. Adenoma●Continued exposure to carcinogens leads to benign tumors such as adenomas.

  33. Adenocarcinoma●Chronic exposure to tobacco leads to malignant tumors such as adenocarcinoma.

  34. Tumor formation ●Growth factors promote carcinogenesis. Progression factors lead to malignant tumors.

  35. Tumors●The primary cancer can undergo metastasis to distant organs. Carcinoma Angiogenesis Migration, Invasion and Metastasis.

  36. Genetic abnormalities in lung cancer include: • Mutation of tumor suppressor genes such as p53 • Silencing of tumor suppressor genes such as p16, Rb • Amplification of oncogenes such as c-myc, cyclin D1, EGF receptor, erbB-2

  37. Types of Lung Cancer. SCLC (small cell lung cancer) NSCLC • adenocarcinoma • large cell carcinoma • squamous cell carcinoma

  38. SCLC or oat cell carcinoma • Kills approximately 20,000 patients in the U.S. annually. • Is a neuroendocrine tumor. • Is responsive to chemo- and radiation therapy, but relapse frequently occurs. The median survival time is less than one year.

  39. SCLC Biopsy Specimen

  40. Neural enzymes, peptides and transmitters may be stored in the dense core neurosecretory granules associated with SCLC.

  41. Lung cancer symptoms●Cough●Chest pain●Shortness of breath●Pneumonia or bronchitis●Bloody sputum

  42. Lung cancer: chest X-ray

  43. Lung cancer: chest CT-scan

  44. Lung cancer: bronchoscopy

  45. Staging of SCLC • Physical examination • Serum chemistries and whole blood cell counts • CT scan of chest and upper abdomen • FDG PET scan • CT or MRI of the brain • Bone marrow biopsy (optional)

  46. SCLC patient survival.Treatment SurvivalNone < 3 monthsSurgery 6.5 monthsRadiotherapy 10 monthsMurren et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology (2001) pp 983-1018

  47. Combination Chemotherapy Active combinations include:cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, VP-16(CDE), C, doxorubicin, vincristine (CAV),E, cisplatin (EP),VP-16, ifosfamide, P (VIP), andI, carboplatin, VP-16 (ICE).

  48. SCLC relapse●Initially, SCLC often responds to chemotherapyAfter relapse, chemotherapy is often ineffective.Field effect

  49. SCLC metastasis Liver (27%)●Bone (41%)●Adrenals (31%)●Brain (14%)●Lymph nodes, mediastinal (80%)

  50. SCLC carcinogenesis Is SCLC derived from neuroendocrine Kulchitsky cells or stem cells?●Initiated by tobacco smoke carcinogens.

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