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Sentences. Use of English. What is a sentence?. A sentence is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought.

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  1. Sentences Use of English

  2. What is a sentence? • A sentence is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought. • To express a complete thought, a sentence must say something that makes sense by itself. A group of words that does not express a complete thought is a fragment, or a piece of sentence; it is not a sentence itself.

  3. Sentences v/s Fragments • SENTENCE: When the judges announced the winner, everyone applauded. • FRAGMENT: when the judges announced the winner. • SENTENCE: Cara won the essay contest sponsored by the magazine. • FRAGMENT: the essay contest sponsored by the magazine.

  4. Sentences and their purposes

  5. What is a subject and a predicate in a sentence? • The subject and predicate of a sentence are its two essential parts. Without both, a group of words isn’t a sentence. • The red telephone rang loudly. Complete subject complete predicate The telephone and the door bell rang loudly. Complete subject complete predicate The red telephone Complete subject rang and startled everyone in the room. Complete predicate

  6. The simple subject is the word or group of words that acts, is described, or is acted upon. • The telephone rang. (Simple subject, telephone, acts.) • The telephone is red. (Simple subject, telephone, is described.) • The telephone was being connected. (Simple subject, telephone, is acted upon.)

  7. Subjects • The complete subject is the simple subject and its modifiers. The red telephone rang. • A compound subject consists of two or more nouns or pronouns and their modifiers. • The telephone and the doorbell rang.

  8. Predicates • The predicate contains the verb in the sentence. The predicate tells what the subject is doing or experiencing or what is being done to the subject. • The telephone rang.( Rang tells what the subject, telephone, did.) • The telephone is red. (Is tells what the subject, telephone experiences.) • The telephone was being connected. (Was being connected tells what was being done to the subject, telephone.)

  9. A simple predicate contains only the verb. • The lawyer listened. A complete predicate contains the verb and its modifiers. • The lawyer listened carefully. A compound predicate contains two or more verbs. • The lawyer listened and waited.

  10. Sentences beginning with here or there. • The word ‘here’ or ‘there’ may begin a sentence, but it is usually not the subject. • Example: There are two apples left. (What are left? Apples. Therefore, apples is the subject.) • There and here may be used as adverbs telling where. • Example: There are your gloves. (What are there? Gloves.) • Here is my idea. (What is here? Idea.)

  11. Try this exercise • Ships sailed an extra 3,000 to 5,000 miles around South America before the construction of the Panama Canal. • Over 800,000 ships have traveled the 50 miles of the Panama Canal. • The United States has collected about $2 billion from Panama Canal operations. • Panama was awarded total ownership of the Panama Canal by the United States on December 31, 1999.

  12. What are direct and indirect objects? • A direct object is a noun, pronoun, or a group of words that directly receives the action of a verb or shows the result of the action. A direct object answers the question “What?” or “Whom?” after an action verb. • Examples: The mechanic fixed their car. (Fixed what? Car.) • She asked them to wait in the lobby. (Asked whom? Them.)

  13. Indirect Object • An indirect object is a noun or pronoun that precedes the direct object and tells whom or for whom (or to what or for what) the action of the verb is done. • Direct object: Meli read her report. (Read what? Report.) • Indirect object: Meli read us her report. (Read to whom? Us.)

  14. Both direct and indirect objects may be compound. • Examples: Our family recycles glass and aluminum. (compound direct object) • The ski trip had given Lucia and I a wonderful vacation. (compound indirect object.)

  15. Complements • A complement is a word or group of words that completes the meaning of a predicate. • Example: That book is an autobiography. • Both Eric and Bob felt confident. • Notice how the boldfaced words complete the meanings of the sentence above.

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