Variety IS the Spice of Writing! • Cumulative Sentence (aka Loose) • Periodic Sentence • Balanced Sentence
Cumulative Sentence (aka Loose ~ presumably loosely structured) • Common to speech & sentence combining • Basic Statement: Bells rang. • Add a string of details: Bells rang, filling the air with their clangor, startling pigeons into flight from every belfry, bringing people into the streets to hear the news.
Cumulative Sentence ~ another example • The teacher considered him a good student. • Add a string of details: The teacher considered him a good student, steady if not inspired, willing if not eager, responsive to instruction and conscientious about his work.
Cumulative Sentence ~ mentor text from “The Demon Lover” • “Against the next batch of clouds, already piling up ink dark, broken chimneys and parapets stood out.” • Work with a partner to find another example in the text. Write your example on a sentence strip.
Periodic Sentence • Suspense builds as the main clause arrives near the period, but can have appositives as the additional details. • Basic sentence: John gave his mother flowers. • Add a string of details: John, the tough one, the sullen kid who scoffed at any show of sentiment, gave his mother flowers.
Periodic Sentence ~ another example • She refused. • While he was declaring the ardour of his passion in such terms, as but too often make vehemence pass for sincerity, Adeline, to whom this declaration, if honourable, was distressing, and if dishonourable, was shocking, interrupted him and thanked him for the offer of a distinction, which, with a modest, but determined air, she said she must refuse.
Periodic Sentence ~ poetry “Out of the bosom of the Air, Out of the cloud-folds of her garment shaken, Over the woodlands brown and bare, Over the harvest-fields forsaken, Silent and soft, and slow, Descends the snow. Longfellow’s “Snowflakes”
Periodic Sentence ~ mentor text from “The Demon Lover” • “Behind the blanket of rain the clock of the church that still stood struck six—with rapidly heightening apprehension she counted each of the slow strokes.” • Work with a partner to find another example in the text. Write your example on a sentence strip.
“Presto-Chango” • Cumulative ~ Periodic • True cumulative sentences and periodic sentences can be reversed without losing meaning – just effect/emphasis.
Balanced ~ Emphatic Parallel structure approximately the same length and importance • Best-known examples: • “Veni, vidi, vici” Julius Caesar • “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times…” A Tale of Two Cities
Balanced Sentence From Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address: “But in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate – we cannot consecrate – we cannot hallow – this ground” and “….– that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.”
Balanced Sentence~Mentor text from “The Demon Lover” • “It was not a circular, it was not a bill.” • Work with a partner to find another example of a balanced sentence from the text. Write that example on a sentence strip.
Assignment • Groups of two – each will have a sentence to write, but you may share brains. • Write a sentence of at least 15 words based on the forms chosen by your group. • Share the sentences with the class by writing them on the sentence strips.
Student Samples ~ cumulative • They had a good time, laughing, joking and smiling, running jovially while playing capture the flag until the wee hours of the morning. • The moon rose, high and bright, provoking wolf cries, stealing darkness from night. • She obviously liked the song on the radio, tapping her foot, singing along, and moving enthusiastically to the rhythm of the beat.
Student samples ~ periodic • Lying on the frigid hardwood floor, clinging to the last inkling of life, the man was dying. • With a carnival-like atmosphere, the lively show, the howling beasts, and sweating performers, the circus was his life. • Looking at me with wide, shocked eyes, her hair swaying softly in the breeze as she breathed in a shaky breath wrought with nervousness, Andrea told me to do it.
Student samples ~ periodic con’t • Crawling out of his bed, creeping into the shower for a jolt of awake, pouring the caffeine into his veins, he made it to work every day. • Even though he tried his best in practice and never touched the filed during games, the sport was his life. • Lying motionless in a bed of wood, his face was pale, his body was solid in absolute stillness, the man was dead.
Student samples ~ balanced • The pain was unbearable; the stress was unequaled. • The old painting hung on the wall, almost a vivid photograph created from paint. • Doctors heal patients; dentists clean teeth; both gain wealth.