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Grammar Notes Unit 3 Part 2

Grammar Notes Unit 3 Part 2

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Grammar Notes Unit 3 Part 2

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  1. Grammar NotesUnit 3 Part 2 Weeks 5 – 8 Sentences and Sentence Variety (lessons 34 – 39)

  2. Grammar – Unit 3 Lessons 34 - 39 Parts of Speech Part 3 and Sentences

  3. The 8 Parts of Speech • Nouns:Words that name a person, place, thing, or idea (sofa, democracy) Proper nouns — specific names of people and places, such as Peyton Manning and Indianapolis — are capitalized. • Pronouns:Words that take the place of a noun or another pronoun (I, you, me, he, she, it, we, who, they) Possessive pronouns show ownership: my/mine, your/yours, their/theirs, our/ours. • Verbs:Words that name an action or describe a state of being (run, seem) • Adjectives:Words that describe nouns and pronouns (red, more, second, several) • Adverbs:Words that describe verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs (yesterday, below, happily, partly) • Prepositions:Words that link a noun or pronoun to another word in the sentence (by, about, behind, above, across, at, with) • Conjunctions:Words that connect words or groups of words and show how they are related (and, or, for, but, after, although, because) • Interjections:Words that show strong emotion (Oh! Wow!)

  4. Please take Notes using the Cornell Method

  5. Grammar Bytes - Week 5 A/An – Use a before consonant sounds; use an before vowel sounds. Examples: She has an MBA. It’s a Utopian idea.

  6. Grammar Bytes - Week 6 Abbreviations (making them Plural): Add an s (without an apostrophe) to the end of an abbreviation to make it plural. Example: Smith had two RBIs tonight.

  7. Grammar Bytes - Week 7 Affect/Effect: Most of the time affect is a verb and effect is a noun. Example: The rain affected her hair. The effect mattered.

  8. GRAMMARLesson 34 • Please take out your notes for your studies in Grammar …

  9. Essential Question: What are prepositions and how are they used in sentences? Prepositions

  10. Prepositions often answer questions like Where? and When? Keep that secret between you and me. I’ll tell you the secret at dinnertime. Where When

  11. Prepositions show relationship between words; they deal with space and time. Time Space • above • by • over • before • after • since

  12. Note: Prepositions are NOT usually followed by verbs.

  13. Ending Sentences with Prepositions Although most grammarians agree that it is OK to end sentences with prepositions, it is BETTER not to. LOL (acceptable) What is ice cream made of? What are the ingredients in ice cream? (better)

  14. Where is she at? Where is she? Before using a preposition, ask, “Is it necessary?”

  15. Squiggly jumped off of the dock. Squiggly jumped off the dock. Before using a preposition, ask, “Is it necessary?”

  16. Ending Sentences with Prepositions Tip: If the sentence doesn’t work without the preposition, keep it in. And it’s usually OK to end with a preposition if the preposition is necessary and the sentence would sound awkward when rewritten.

  17. Phrasal Verb: A set of words (a verb-plus-preposition combo) that acts as a single verb unit. • held up • run into • show up • throw up • cheer up • look up • make up • run away • sleep over

  18. Prepositional Phrases Prepositions do not act alone; they act as part of prepositional phrases. She slid the note under the door. They planned to meet at noon. When Where Space Time

  19. I Where is the mouse at? The mouse is in the house. After five days, she asked, “Who’s house?” I answered, “Sue’s house which is over the hill.” Mini Quiz – Copy the sentence, underline the preposition and tell if it is used correctly or incorrectly in the sentence. C C C

  20. Summary: In one sentence, please answer part one of your essential question: What are prepositions? Prepositions

  21. Grammar Matters ------

  22. GRAMMARLesson 35 • Please take out your notes for your studies in Grammar …

  23. Essential Question: What is the difference between conjunctions and interjections? Conjunctions Interjections

  24. A conjunction connects words, phrases, and parts of sentences. • Coordinating Conjunctions • Correlative Conjunctions • Subordinating Conjunctions

  25. Coordinating Conjunctions are used to organize sentences by joining other words, phrases, or clauses that have the same construction: parallel construction. For And Nor But Or Yet So

  26. Parallel Construction • Squiggly was often distracted by this or that. • Squiggly went to the store and bought some chocolate. • Squiggly went to the store, and Aardvark wondered when he would return. NOTE: Don’t overuse and or or. Instead, use commas  Squiggly picked Grammar Girl and Aardvark and Anna and Charlie and Harry and Sally.

  27. Parallel ConstructionPlease read and mark as “r” for right or “w” for wrong. W R W • Aard bought a tie, shirt, and a hat for Squig. • Aard bought a tie, a shirt, and a hat for Squig. • Squig asks for a bicycle, the tent, and for a kite. • Squig asks for a bicycle, for a tent, and for a kite. • Squig asks for a bicycle, a tent, and a kite. • Squig asks for a bicycle, tent, and kite. R R R

  28. and Correlative Conjunctions – A conjunction pair. both … either … neither … not only … or nor but also

  29. Both you and your brother are welcome. Either be friends with Squiggly or I am not playing. Neither Grammar Girl nor Aardvark have arrived. Aardvark is not only a great player but also a great negotiator.

  30. Because Before If Since Though When Whenever While Aardvark left the room whenever Squiggly turned on polka music. Squiggly warned Aardvark before he turned on the music. Subordinating Conjunctions are used to create subordinate clauses, clauses that can not stand alone as a sentence.

  31. Interjections, sometimes called exclamations, are short words or phrases that reveal emotions, offer reactions, insert pauses, and demand attention. Aha! • Amazing! • Note: They can stand alone as a one-word sentence.

  32. Yo! Do you know what an interjection is? Um, not really. • Wow! • Yes, you have a problem with that? • Well, how can you say you don’t know what an interjection is?

  33. and Both you ___ Jan should attend. Either stay here ____ leave. Neither Anj ____ Bardo are here. Jill is not only a good athlete _______a great student. Mini Quiz – Copy the sentences using the correct conjunctions. or nor but also

  34. Summary: In one sentence, please answer your essential question: What is the difference between conjunctions and interjections? Conjunctions Interjections

  35. Grammar Matters ------

  36. GRAMMARLesson 36 • Please take out your notes for your studies in Grammar …

  37. Essential Question: What is the subject of a sentence? Sentences • The Subject

  38. The subject of a sentence is who or what a sentence is about.

  39. Subjects can have different forms. • EX: Squiggly ran. • The simplest subject is a simple noun: • Compound subject – Two or more nouns joined by and. • Alternative subject – Two or more nouns joined by or. • EX: Squiggly and Aardvark ran. • EX: Squiggly or Aardvark called.

  40. Gerunds and Infinitives can work as subjects. A sentence that doesn’t seem to have a subject usually has an implied subject. Singing makes me happy! To laugh is to live. Complete Subject – a noun phrase acting as a subject. Run! The friendly yellow snail ran. Simple Subject – a noun in the noun phrase operating as a subject. The friendly yellow snail ran.

  41. Summary: In one sentence, please answer your essential question: What is the subject of a sentence? Sentences • The Subject

  42. Grammar Matters ------

  43. GRAMMARLesson 37 • Please take out your notes for your studies in Grammar …

  44. Essential Question: What is the predicate of a sentence? Sentences • The Predicate

  45. The predicate is the part of the sentence that isn’t the subject. A sentence must have a verb, and in a very simple sentence, the predicate is the verb. The predicate can include things that modify the verb, such as objects and adverbs. • Squiggly ran. • Squiggly ran quickly.

  46. If your sentence has a linking verb, such as is, the elements that comes after it is called the predicate noun when it is a noun and a predicate adjective if it is an adjective. • The ring is a doozy. predicate noun • Silence is golden. predicate adjective

  47. Quiz – Underline the predicate in each sentence • Squiggly looked longingly at the chocolate. • The boy with blue hair called. • Sir Fragalot messed up his sentence again.

  48. Summary: In one sentence, please answer your essential question: What is the predicate of a sentence? Sentences • The Predicate

  49. Grammar Matters ------

  50. GRAMMARLesson 38 • Please take out your notes for your studies in Grammar …