Pseudotsuga menziesiiDouglas-fir Pinanceae family. Monoecious gymnosperm tree with needle-like evergreen leaves and woody ovulate cones. Cones hanging downward with three-lobed bracts protruding from between the cone scales.
Pseudotsuga menziesiiDouglas-fir • Needles sometimes used as a substitute for coffee. • Wood used extensively for lumber (very strong) • Wood used to make bows (Blackfoot) • White, crystalline sugar exuded from branches sometimes in early summer • Pitch used as a gum • A Blackfoot story tells how mice ran into the cones to hide from Naapi (a legendary character). What hangs out is their tails and hind legs.
Lewisia rediviva Pursh.Bitterroot • Portulaceae family. Herbs. Leaves mostly simple. Flowers bisexual. Plants with a fleshy, simple or branched taproot over 1 cm long. Sepals 4 or more; petals 12-35 mm long; • First discovered by Meriweather Lewis in present day western Montana during the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Genus named after him. • Montana’s state flower.
Lewisia rediviva Pursh.Bitterroot • (Blackfoot) Pounded, dry root chewed for sore throat. • (Flathead) Roots eaten for increased milk flow after childbirth. • Roots boiled and eaten as staple vegetable food when in season • Leaves boiled and eaten • Roots an important article of trade • Dried roots served only on special occasions
Oryzopsis hymenoidesIndian Ricegrass • Poaceae family • Native throughout Montana • Used ornamentally in water-wise gardens • Edible seeds • Nevada and Utah state grass
Oryzopsis hymenoidesIndian Ricegrass • Ground seeds used as food • Seeds gathered and stored for winter use • Plant used as fodder for animals • Seeds considered a good food to eat when suffering from stomachaches, colic, or aching bones. • Along trail in Four Dances Natural Area going down to river.
Elymus spicatussyn Agropyron spicatus, Pseudoroegneriaspicata • Colloquial name: Bluebunch wheatgrass • Montana’s state grass • Wheatgrass rootstocks can be dried, ground into flour, and used in bread making. • Roots can also be roasted, ground, and used as coffee substitute • Grains can be collected and ground into flour, but collection is tedious.
Plant Sub-classes • Magnoliopsida (Dicots) • Magnoliidae • Hamamelidae • Caryophyllidae • Dilleniidae • Rosidae • Asteridae • Liliopsida (Monocots) • Alismatidae • Arecidae • Commelinidae • Zingiberidae • Liliidae • (Arthur Cronquist. 1988. The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants)
Magnoliaceae • Magnoliaceae have their stamens and pistils in spirals on a conical receptacle. • This arrangement is found in fossil plants and is believed to be primitive for angiosperms • Flowers not so clearly differentiated into having sepals and petals; have tepals instead • No plants in this family occur naturally in Montana
Magnoliaceae • Flowers are bisexual usually • Flowers have radial symmetry • Flowers have elongate receptacle • Leaves are alternate, simple, and sometimes lobed • Inflorescence is a solitary flower with tepals
Magnoliaceae • Sepals range from six to many • Stamens are numous and feature short filaments which are poorly differentiated from the anthers • Carpels are usually numerous, distinct, and on elongate receptacle • Fruit an aggregate of follicles which open along the abaxial surface. • Fruits have a fleshy coat and are colored usually red to orange except for Liriodendron sp. • Carpels thick to avoid insect damage
Magnoliaceae • Not an economically significant family • Valued for ornamental qualities in gardens • Some wood from certain timber species • Bark and flowers from several species reported to have medicinal properties
RanunculaceaeSub-class: Magnoliidae • Aka as the buttercup family or crowfoot family • Found worldwide, but are most common in northern hemisphere in temperate and montane climates • Well represented in Montana • Leaves are very often more or less palmately compound • Mostly herbaceous plants, but with some woody climbers such as Clematis and subshrubs such as Xanthorhiza.
Ranunculaceae Clematis virginiana Xanthorhiza simplissima
Ranunculaceae • Showy and medium to large flowers to attract pollinators • Radially symmetrical but in some cases bilaterally symmetrical • Perianth is made of one or more commonly two whorls, often not clearly differentiated into a true calyx and corolla. • The sepals may be connate, and the petals are often evolved into spurred nectaries. • Flowers have many free stamens arranged in spirals and usually many free pistils. • Flowers most often grouped in terminal racemes, panicles or cymes. • Fruit most commonly a follicle or an achene.
Ranunculaceae Follicles of Aquilegia Achenes of Anemone sp. Achenes of Anemone sp.
PapaveraceaeSub-class: Magnoliidae • Occurs in temperate and sub-tropical climates. • Genera Agemone, Glaucium, and Papaver native to Montana • Most are herbaceous plants • Produce milky latex, a watery white, yellow, red, or sometimes clear juice. • Simple leaves are alternate or sometimes whorled • Leaves have petioles and are not enclosed by a sheath • Leaves usually lobed; no stipules
Papaveraceae • Hermaphroditic (bisexual flowers with stamens and carpels) • Pollinated mostly by insects • Distinct calyx and corolla • Flowers are medium sized or large (therefore more primitive) • Flowers are spectacular to look at • Flowers solitary in most species • Flowers usually odorless and regular
Papaveraceae • Many stamens, mostly 16-60, arranged in two separate whorls, the outer one with stamens alternate with the petals, the inner ones opposite. • Compound pistil with 2 to 100 carpels. • Ovary superior and 1-locular. • Ovary without a footstalk (sessile) or on a short stem (stipitate) • Fruit usually a non-fleshy, dry capsule
Papaveraceae • These plants almost all contain alkaloids • Many are poisonous • Few are ever grazed by animals • Several species grown as garden ornamentals • California poppy, Eschscholtzia californica, is that state’s official flower. • Papaver somniferum, the opium poppy, is the source of opium and opiates, and as well as most of the poppy seeds used in cooking and baking
EuphorbiaceaeSub-class: Rosidae • The spurge family is a large family of mostly herbaceous plants. • Some are succulent and resemble cacti • Occurs mainly in the tropics with most in Indo-Malayan region and tropical America • A number also occur in tropical Africa • Euphorbia and Croton only genera of this family occurring in our region of North America.
Euphorbiaceae • Internal phloem sometimes present. • Chemically diverse, often with laticifers containing milky or colored latex, usually poisonous • Hairs, simple to branched, stellate or peltate.
Euphorbiaceae • The leaves are alternate, seldom opposite, with stipules usually present. • Leaves are mainly simple, sometimes palmately lobed or compound, entire to serrate, with pinnate to palmate venation. • Inflorescences determinate, but often highly modified. • Flowers unisexual or imperfect (plants monoecious or dioecious). • Flowers usually with radial symmetry, showy to inconspicuous.
Euphorbiaceae • Sepals usually 2-6, distinct to slightly connate. • Petals usually 1-5, distinct to slightly connate, valvate or imbricate, often lacking. • Stamens 1 to numerous, filaments distinct to connate • Ovary superior, usually 3-lobed • Ovules 1 in each locule
Euphorbiaceae • Hevea brasiiensis (rubber tree) is the source of most natural rubber and is also a timber source. • Aleurites moluccana (candlenut tree) and Aleuritesfordii (tung tree) are sources of oils used in paints and varnishes. • Sapirum sebiferum (Chinese tallow tree) is a source of vegetable tallow and wax.
AceraceaeSub-class: Rosidae • Also called the maple family. Contains two to four genera of some 120 species of trees and shrubs • A common characteristic is that the leaves are opposite and the fruit is a schizocarp. • Some taxonomists (including our textbook) include Aceraceae in the family Sapindaceae. • Dorn lists it as a separate family and indicates two possibly three species of Acer as only representatives of this family in Montana.
Aceraceae Acer negundo Acer glabrum Acer grandidentatum
RutaceaeSub-class: Rosidae • Commonly known as rue or citrus family • Usually placed in order Sapindales • Species of this family generally have flowers that divide into four or five parts, usually with strong scents. • Range in form from herbs to shrubs and small trees. • Most economically important genus in family is Citrus
Rutaceae • Frequently aromatic with glands on the leaves • Sometimes with thorns • Leaves usually opposite and compound; without stipules. • Flowers are bractless, solitary or in cyme, rarely in raceme. • Pollinated by insects usually.
Rutaceae • Flowers radially or bilaterally symmetric, and generally hermaphroditic (bisexual) • Four to five sepals and petals. • Eight to ten stamens, usually separate or in several groups • Single stigma with two to five united capels. • Ovaries separate and styles combined. • Fruit variable from berries, drupes, hesperidiums, samara, capsules, and follicles.
ApiaceaeSub-class: Rosidae • Also known as Umbelliferae • Family of usually aromatic plants with hollow stems, commonly known as umbellifers. • Includes cumin, parsley, carrot, corriander/cilantro, dill, caraway, fennel, parsnip, celery, Queen Anne’s Lace. • Large family • Inflorescence generally a compound ‘umbel’
Apiaceae • Small flowers are radially symmetrical with 5 small sepals, 5 petals, and 5 stamens. • Family includes some highly toxic plants such as hemlock. • Many members of this plant group are cultivated, for various purposes. • The plant structure includes a tap root, which has been sometimes bred to provide food.
Apiaceae • Some of these plants concentrate essential oils, so that some are used a flavorful/aromatic herbs such as parsley, cilantro, and dill. • The plentiful seeds are sometimes used in cuisine, as with coriander, fennel, cumin and caraway. • Many native genera/species in this family in Montana
AsclepidaceaeSub-class: Asteridae • Often referred to as milkweed family • Usually milky sap present • Dorn lists Asclepias as only genus of this family occurring naturally in Montana. • Textbook puts genera of this family into another family Apocynaceae • Herbs, shrubs, woody vines, stem-succulents or trees.
Asclepiadaceae • Leaves opposite (less frequently alternate or whorled). • Simple and entire leaves, without stipules • Inflorescence a cyme or umbel. • Flowers perfect, regular, hypogynous to partially epigynous. • Sepals five, connate or nearly distinct. • Petals 5, connate • Stamens 5, adnate to stigma; filaments distinct • Carpels 2, distinct at base • 2 superior ovaries • Fruit a pair of follicles, one of which often aborts • Seeds often bearing a tuft of hairs.
Asclepiadaceae • Flowers are very unusual • Sepals and petals are comparatively normal in appearance. • Stamens bear little resemblance to ordinary stamens; filaments bear inflated or otherwise modified appendages that form a conspicuous corona.