Comparison of Teacher-Centered and Learner-Centered Paradigms - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Comparison of Teacher-Centered and Learner-Centered Paradigms

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  1. Comparison of Teacher-Centered and Learner-Centered Paradigms From Figure 1-2 in Huba and Freed, Learner-Centered Assessment on College Campuses: Shifting the Focus from Teaching to Learning, 2000 Introduction toProblem-Based Learning George Watson Institute for TransformingUndergraduate Education University of Delaware American University of Beirut, LebanonApril 20, 2004

  2. Delaware… Dela where?

  3. What I know best I have taught… …the individuals learning the most in the teacher-centered classrooms are the teachers there. They have reserved for themselves the very conditions that promote learning: actively seeking new information, integrating it with what is known, organizing it in a meaningful way, and explaining it to others. Page 35, Huba and Freed, Learner-Centered Assessment on College Campuses: Shifting the Focus from Teaching to Learning, 2000

  4. First, an exercise: Individually, write down five words or short phrases that come to mind when you think of: Student-Centered Learning In small groups, select three “most important”. Finally, prepare to report out one choice.

  5. Comparison of Paradigms Teacher-Centered Knowledge is transmitted from professor to student. Learner-Centered Students construct knowledge through gathering and synthesizing information and integrating it with the general skills of inquiry, communication, critical thinking, and problem solving.

  6. Comparison of Paradigms Teacher-Centered Students passively receive information. Learner-Centered Students are actively involved.

  7. Comparison of Paradigms Teacher-Centered Emphasis is on acquisition of knowledge outside the context in which it will be used. Learner-Centered Emphasis is on using and communicating knowledge effectively to address enduring and emerging issues and problems in real-life contexts.

  8. Comparison of Paradigms Teacher-Centered Instructor’s role is to be primary information giver and primary evaluator. Learner-Centered Instructor’s role is to coach and facilitate. Instructor and students evaluate learning together.

  9. Comparison of Paradigms Teacher-Centered Emphasis is on right answers. Learner-Centered Emphasis is on generating better questions and learning from errors.

  10. Comparison of Paradigms Teacher-Centered Focus is on a single discipline. Learner-Centered Approach is compatible with interdisciplinary investigation.

  11. Comparison of Paradigms Teacher-Centered Culture is competitive and individualistic. Learner-Centered Culture is cooperative, collaborative, and supportive.

  12. Comparison of Paradigms Teacher-Centered Only students are viewed as learners. Learner-Centered Professor and students learn together.

  13. Questions and Reflections

  14. An Introduction toProblem-Based Learning

  15. What is Problem-Based Learning? PBL is a learning approach that challenges students to “learn to learn,” working cooperatively in groups to seek solutions to real world problems. PBL prepares students to think critically and analytically, and to find and use appropriate learning resources.

  16. “The principal idea behind PBL is that the starting point for learning should be a problem, a query, or a puzzle that the learner wishes to solve.” Boud (1985)

  17. “…careful inspection of methods which are permanently successful in formal education…will reveal that they depend for their efficiency upon the fact that they go back to the type of situation which causes reflection out of school in ordinary life. They give pupils something to do, not something to learn; and if the doing is of such a nature as to demand thinking, or the intentional noting of connections; learning naturally results.” John Dewey (1916)

  18. What are the CommonFeatures of PBL? Learning is initiated by a problem. Problems are based on complex, real-world situations. All information needed to solve problem is not initially given. Students identify, find, and use appropriate resources. Students work in permanent groups.

  19. PBL: The Process Students are presented with a problem. They organize ideas and previous knowledge. Students pose questions, defining what they know and do not know. Assign responsibility for questions, discuss resources. Reconvene, explore newly learned information, refine questions.

  20. Problem-Based Learning Cycle Overview Problem, Project, or Assignment Mini-lecture(only if needed!) Group Discussion Whole Class Discussion Preparation of Group “Product” Research Group Discussion

  21. A Typical Day in a PBL Course

  22. Characteristics Neededin College Graduates High level of communication skills Ability to define problems, gather and evaluate information, develop solutions Team skills -- ability to work with others Ability to use all of the above to address problems in a complex real-world setting Quality Assurance in Undergraduate Education (1994) Wingspread Conference, ECS, Boulder, CO.

  23. Recommendations from the Carnegie Foundation Make research-based learning the standard. Build inquiry-based learning throughout the four years. Link communication skills and course work. Use information technology effectively. Cultivate a sense of community. Boyer Commission, 1998

  24. The principal idea behind PBL is? • PBL challenges students to learn to learn. • Learning is initiated by a problem. • Student-centered work in permanent groups.

  25. “The principal idea behind PBL is that the starting point for learning should be a problem, a query, or a puzzle that the learner wishes to solve.” Boud (1985)

  26. The principal idea behind PBL is? A. PBL challenges students to learn to learn. B. Learning is initiated by a problem. C. Student-centered work in permanent groups. Think/ pair/ share

  27. Compelling Features of PBLfor New Adapters Models itself on how students learn. With information overload, prepares students to be life-long learners. More realistic curriculum prepares students for world outside the classroom. Ensures more up-to-date materials, content. Generates enthusiasm among faculty. Boud and Feletti, 1998

  28. Outcomes? Moving away from: Are students getting the right answer?

  29. Outcomes? Moving to: Can students demonstrate the qualities that we value in educated persons, the qualities we expect of college graduates?

  30. Outcomes? Moving to: Can students gather and evaluate new information, think critically, reason effectively, and solve problems?

  31. Outcomes? Moving to: Can [students] communicate clearly, drawing upon evidence to provide a basis for argumentation?

  32. Outcomes? Moving to: Do [students’] decisions and judgments reflect understanding of universal truths[/concepts] in the humanities and arts [etc.]?

  33. Outcomes? Moving to: Can [students] work respectfully and productively with others?

  34. Outcomes? Moving to: Do [students] have self-regulating qualities like persistence and time management that will help them reach long-term goals?

  35. Questions and Reflections