KEY CONCEPTS • Prior to 1763, American capital goes across the pond. • French and Indian War transformed the relationship between Britain and the American colonies. • American colonists were divided over what course of action to take. • The Americans created a government, the Continental Congress, to address the deteriorating relationship between Britain and the colonies.
By mid 1700s, France and Britain in inter-imperialist struggle for dominance in N.A. • French allied with Native American tribes (ex. Algonquin and Huron against Iroquois) • Focal point of French and Indian War is the Ohio River Valley (stop westward expand.)
Albany Congress created • Led by Benjamin Franklin • Goal was to keep Iroquois tribes loyal to Britain • American colonial response to the French became known as the Albany Plan of Union • Carryout diplomatic relations with tribes • Control public territory • Raise an army • Tax colonial citizens
Albany Plan was not accepted: • Colonists too concerned about their own interests • Unwilling to relinquish control to a provincial congress • Created a foundation for future colonial cooperation
British defeat French in the French and Indian War • Results of the Peace of Paris • Britain receive all of French Canada and all territory south of Canada and east of the Miss. • France and Spain lose West Indian colonies • Britain received Florida from Spain • Spain receive from France its territory west of the Mississippi, including control of New Orleans.
Political and Economic problems for the British post war • Large debt and a fiscal crisis, force British to respond to needs of empire building: • New land must be governed • Revenue must be raised to absorb costs (citizens in Britain were already taxed heavily) • Native Americans in Appalachian region • French Canadians need to be assimilated • Economic competition from colonists
PRE-REVOLUTIONARY WARBRITISH POLICY IN THE COLONIES • Salutary neglect: 1750-1763 • Limited intervention and management as long as ‘mercantilist policy is profitable • Policies not challenged; infrequently enforced, difficult to implement
British Mercantilist Policies Pre-1760 Period • Overseeing trade: British Board of Trade • Navigation Laws – establishes British authority to regulate colonial trade • The Wool (1669), Hat (1732) and Iron (1750) Acts • The Molasses Act (1733) – Rum, not well enforced
1763 – TURNING POINT • Cost of empire exceeding its benefits • King George III appoints George Grenville as Prime Minister. Under Grenville, Britain transforms political, economic and trade relationship w/ colonies. • Policy of Salutary Neglect is abandoned • Proclamation of 1763
POST PROCLAMTION OF 1763 ACTS • Sugar (Revenue) Act of 1764 – replaces ineffective Molasses Act of 1733 • Currency Act of 1764 – Forbade colonies from printing currency; all taxes had to be paid in hard (specie) currency • Quartering Act – Provide food and supplies to British troops stationed in the colonies
Stamp Act (1765) – Taxing all virtually all printed material • Virginia’s Patrick Henry, ‘No taxation without representation’ • Raises up the colonial middle class • 1765- Nine colonies form the Stamp Act Congress; issue a Declaration of Rights • Boycotts and rebellion groups like Sons and Daughters of Liberty and the Loyal Nine
Declaratory Act (1766) – Britain repeals the Stamp Act, but declares right to tax through: ‘virtual representation’
Colonial response: • Boycott • Circular letter • John Dickinson, ‘Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer’ (1767) • Tar and Feathering • Boston Massacre (1770) – Crispus Attucks • Paul Revere and Sam Adams • Committees of correspondence- exchange of ideas and unified response by colonial govt’s.
TEA TIME!!! • Gaspee Incident • Boston Tea Party • Tea prices fall dramatically • Parliament passes regulations to give British East India Company monopoly on tea trade • December 16,1773 – Boston Tea Party • Governor Hutchinson returns to England
BRITISH RESPONSE:INTOLERABLE (COERCIVE) ACTS OF 1774 • The Boston Port Bill – • closed the port of Boston; relocated customs house • The Administration of Justice Act – • trials for royal officials held in Britain • The Massachusetts Government Act- • limited right to organize freely; Crown appointments
CHARLES TOWNSHEND • British elites critical of Parliament’s appeasement of the colonies • ‘Champaign Charlie’ new Prime Minister • Townshend Acts (1767) • Prices inflated to cover taxes • Suspended New York Assembly • American Board of Customs; admiralty courts