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Chromosomes PowerPoint Presentation
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Chromosomes

Chromosomes

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Chromosomes

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  1. Chromosomes

  2. Chromosomes • Defined: Tightly coiled DNA • Form when cells divide • Chromosomes created for the new cells • 2 Parts: • 1) Chromatids: two identical parts of a chromosome • 2) Centromere: Joins chromatids together

  3. Karyotype Female • Defined: Picture of an individuals chromosomes • Help identify sex & chromosome defects • Size of final pair identifies sex • Same size: XX = female • Different size: XY = male • Normal human will have 46 chromosomes Male

  4. Down Syndrome: What’s Wrong? • Writing notation: • 1st: total chromosome # • 2nd: Sex chromosomes • 3rd: extra or missing • Down Syndrome: 47, XY, +21

  5. Turner’s Syndrome: What’s Wrong? • Write the notation for Turner’s Syndrome. • 45, X, -23 • or • 45, XO, -23

  6. Patau’s Syndrome: What’s Wrong? • Write the notation for Patau’s Syndrome. • 47, XY, +13

  7. Klinefelter’s Syndrome: What’s Wrong? • Write the notation for Klinefelter’s Syndrome. 47, XXY, +23

  8. Diploid Cells • Diploid Cells = Cells with the full set of chromosomes • Paired chromosomes • Half of our chromosomes come from each parent (23 from each parent) • Somatic (non-sex) cells are diploid • Created by mitosis • Ex: Skin, Muscle, Nerve, Blood Cells

  9. Haploid Cells • Haploid Cells = Cells with ½ the total number of chromosomes • Gametes (sex cells) are the only haploid cells • Ex: Sperm, Egg, Pollen • Created by meiosis • Chromosome number reduced by 1/2 • How do humans get 46 chromosomes? Haploid sperm cell (23) + Haploid egg cell (23) = Diploid zygote (46)

  10. What is the human diploid chromosome number? Remember…Diploid = total number of chromosomes Answer = 46

  11. What is the human haploid chromosome number? Remember…Haploid = half number of chromosomes Answer = 23 chromosomes

  12. What is the human somatic chromosome number? Remember…Somatic cells are non-sex cells… …Somatic cells are diploid… …Diploid cells have the full set of chromosomes Answer = 46

  13. What is the human gamete chromosome number? Remember…Gamete cells are sex cells… …Sex cells are haploid… …Haploid cells have ½ the set of chromosomes Answer = 23

  14. How many chromosomes are in female egg cells? Remember…Egg cells are sex cells… …Sex cells are gametes… …Gamete cells are haploid… …Haploid cells have ½ the set of chromosomes Answer = 23

  15. How many chromosomes are in brain cells? Remember…Brain cells are non-sex cells… …Somatic cells are non-sex cells… …Somatic cells are diploid… …Diploid cells have the full set of chromosomes Answer = 46

  16. Rat Karyotype What is the diploid chromosome number? 42

  17. Rat Karyotype What is the haploid chromosome number? 21

  18. Rat Karyotype How many chromosomes would be in somatic cells? 42

  19. Rat Karyotype How many chromosomes would be in brain cells? 42

  20. Rat Karyotype How many chromosomes would be in gamete cells? 21

  21. Rat Karyotype How many chromosomes would be in egg cells? 21

  22. Rat Karyotype How many chromosomes would be in muscle cells? 42

  23. Rat Karyotype How many chromosomes would be in sperm cells? 21

  24. Rat Karyotype • Is this a male or female rat? male

  25. Quick Review • Chromsomes are tightly coiled strands of DNA • Diploid (somatic) cells contain the entire set of chromosomes • Haploid (gametes) cells contain only ½ the total number of chromosomes