Death and the Dying Process - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

types of death basic statistics social aspects of death do not resuscitate euthanasia n.
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Death and the Dying Process

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  1. Types of Death Basic Statistics Social Aspects of Death Do Not Resuscitate Euthanasia Death and the Dying Process

  2. Thanatologists: People who study death and dying. Two types of death: • Functional Death: • Absence of a heart-beat and breathing. • Brain Death: • Diagnosis of death based on the cessation of all signs of brain activity. • Measured by electrical brain waves. Types of Death

  3. America has a very high infant mortality rate: • Ranks behind 35 other countries • Why is this? • Accurate statistics on our part. • More drug use than almost any other country. In early adulthood the leading cause of death is accidents. • Followed by Suicide, Homicide, AIDS, and Cancer Basic Statistics

  4. Basic Statistics

  5. Social Aspects of Death Elisabeth Kubler-Ross: • Based on her observations, she suggested that people pass through five basic steps as they move toward death.

  6. 1. Denial: People resist the idea that they are going to die. • A patient can flatly reject the diagnosis or request a second opinion. • Sometimes memories of weeks in the hospital are forgotten. 2. Anger: • They can be angry at people who are in good health, their spouses and other family, those who are caring for them, and their children. • Questions Asked: Why are the bad people not dying and why am I? This can lead to the next stage. Social Aspects of Death

  7. 3. Bargaining: Dying people try to negotiate their way out of death. • “If you are good, you will be rewarded” • The reward for being “good” is to “live” 4. Depression: They become overwhelmed with a sense of loss. • Reactive depression: Based on events that have already occurred. • Loss of dignity that may accompany medical procedures • End of a job • Knowledge that one will never return from the hospital. • Preparatory depression: Sadness over future losses. • Death will bring an end to their relationships. Social Aspects of Death

  8. 5. Acceptance: Final stage of dying is acceptance. • Once acceptance has arrived they are fully aware that death is impending. • They will have virtually no feelings, positive or negative, about the present or future. • Denial and isolation – “It can’t be!” • Anger – “Why me?” • Bargaining – “Just let me do this first!” • Depression – withdrawal, crying, and grieving • Acceptance – a sense of peace comes Social Aspects of Death

  9. No-Code Order: Written order from a doctor that resuscitation should not be attempted if a person suffers cardiac or respiratory arrest. DNR is more commonly done when a person who has an inevitably fatal illness wishes to have a more natural death without painful or invasive medical procedures. DNR order came into being in the U.S. in the 1960s when defibrillation allowed the reversal of cardiac arrest. Do Not Resuscitate

  10. Defined: The practice of assisting people who are terminally ill to die more quickly. There are three types of euthanasia: 1. Passive Euthanasia Withholding common treatments (Antibiotics, drugs, or surgery) or giving a medication (Morphine) to relieve pain, knowing that it may also result in death. Passive euthanasia is currently the most accepted form as it is currently common practice in most hospitals. 2. Non-aggressive Euthanasia: The practice of withdrawing life support Quite controversial 3. Aggressive Euthanasia: Using lethal substances or force to kill Extremely controversial Physician-Assisted Suicide: Term for aggressive voluntary euthanasia. Euthanasia

  11. Death and Cultural Contexts Funeral industry emphasizes lifelike qualities Euphemisms — softening language for death Persistent search for “fountain of youth” Rejection and isolation of aged Concept of pleasant and rewarding afterlife Medical emphasis — prolonging life, not easing suffering U.S. Denial and Avoidance of Death

  12. A Developmental Perspective of Death Attitudes Toward Death at Different Points in the Life Span Infant has no concept of death; perceptions of death develop in middle/late childhood; even very young children concerned about separation and loss Childhood Develop more abstract concepts of death; common to think they are immune to death Adolescence Middle-aged adults fear death more than young adults or older adults; older adults think about death more Adulthood

  13. A Developmental Perspective of Death Suicide in U.S. Adolescence • 3rd leading cause of death in ages10-19 • 19% of high school students seriously considered or tried suicide in last 12 mos Adulthood and Aging • Suicide rates increase in adulthood • Older adults use more lethal ways, are more successful • Racial and gender differences exist