ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH Ecology Ecosystem Ocean River Stream Pond
BIOSPHERE "AIR - WATER - SOIL"
TYPES OF POLLUTION Air Water Landscape Noise
AIR POLLUTION In order to produce Air Pollution you must first burn something.
SMOG "A Smoke Filled Fog"
KINDS OF FUEL Fossil Fuels Oil Coal Gasoline Organic Fuels Wood
AIR POLLUTION DISASTER Donora, Pa. 1948 Thermal Inversion: Warm air at a higher altitude traps the cold air at a lower altitude keeping the toxins near the ground.
Jared Mason DiamondAmerican Scientistand Author “Tragic sins become moral failures if we should have known better in the first place”
AIR POLLUTION Internal Combustion Engines: Produce hydrocarbon emissions which pollute the air. Note: The Automobile is the largest polluter in the United States.
Volatile Chemical compounds (VOCs): are emitted as gases from Certain solids and/or liquids. Concentrations of VOCs are up to ten time higher indoors than out doors. Pollutants/Sources: Asbestos, Biological Pollutants, Carbon Monoxide, Formaldehyde/Pressed Wood Products, Household Cleaning/ Maintenance, Personal Care, or Hobbies, Lead, Nitrogen Dioxide, Pesticides, Radon, Respirable Particles, Secondhand Smoke/ Environmental Tobacco Smoke, Stoves, Heaters, Fireplaces, and Chimneys. INDOOR AIR QUALITY (Volatile Organic Compounds VOCs) http://www.epa.gov/iedweb00
ACID RAIN Is produced from the burning of coal. It goes aloft into to the air and travels via rain clouds and returns to earth in the form of rain.
WATER POLLUTION Water may become polluted via: Chemicals Hospital Waste Raw Sewage Fertilizer Run Off Heated Water (Thermal Pollution) Nuclear Leaks/Waste Industrial Wastes (Led/Mercury/PCBs) Insecticides/Pesticides/Herbicides
THE AQUIFER • An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well. • The study of water flow in aquifers and the characterization of aquifers is called hydrogeology.
HYDROFRACKING Also known as Hydraulic Fracturing: • A mining method that involves injecting massive amounts of toxic chemical brine deep underground in order to release natural gas (among other things). • The fracturing operation is intended to create fractures that extend from the wellbore into the target oil or gas formations. • Injected fluids may travel as far as 3,000 feet horizontally from the well head.
Explosion and Fire April 20, 2010 Gulf Oil Spill April 2010
PACIFIC TRASH VORTEX PLASTICS
GREAT PACIFIC GARBAGE PATCH
Sewage Treatment Plants Three (3) Stage Sewage Treatment Stage 1 - Solids separated from Liquid and burned off Stage 2- Liquid goes into vats where oxygen is pumped into the water Stage 3 - Phosphates are removed and chlorine is added to the water before being released
LANDSCAPE POLLUTION Road Side Signs Strip Mining Solid Waste Glass "Is Not Biodegradable" Junk Yards/Open Dumps
"Ugliness is so grim," Lady Bird Johnson once said. "A little beauty, something that is lovely, I think, can help create harmony which will lessen tensions."
NOISE POLLUTION Industrial Noises Rock/Loud Music Auto Racing
Below 85dBA Above 85 dBA Sound is measured with a sound-level meter or a VU meter. A sound-level meter measures the loudness of sound in decibels (dB) units, and a VU meter measures it in volume units (VU).
OSHA is a United States agency that was created in 1970 by Congress under the Occupational Safety and Health Act signed by President Richard Nixon. OSHA makes rules for safety in the workplace to prevent deaths, injuries and illnesses related to work. The government regulates workplaces, and OSHA workers visit workplaces to make sure their standards are followed. OSHA has established decibel levels at which noise is believed to be hazardous and has established rules based on two decibel-level thresholds: 85 dB and 90 dB.
ENVIRONMENTAL BOOKS AND THEIR AUTHORS THE QUIET CRISIS By Stewart L. Udall Major Theme/Focus: The Philosophy towards the environment caused The Quiet Crisis.
Stewart L. Udall Secrretary of the Interior John F. Kennedy President 1960-63
The Quiet Crisis The American Indians "Live within the land" Mountain Men: Daniel Boone White Indians
“Let them kill, skin, and sell until the buffalo is exterminated, as it is the only way to bring lasting peace and allow civilization to advance." - General Philip Sheridan Iron Horse
Key People in the Environmental Movement George Perkins March Gifford Pinchott Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt The Antiquities Act of 1906 An Act for the Preservation of American Antiquities: Which gives the President of the United States authority to restrict the use of particular public land owned by the federal government by executive order, bypassing congressional oversight. Devils Tower, the first National Monument
Franklin Delaino Roosevelt "The New Deal" Tennessee Valley Authority "TVA" -Hydroelectic Power - Lakes - Recreation Lands - Civilian Conservation Corps "CCC" - Salt Museum - Fort Sainta Maria - Willow Bay -
The New "Old French Fort" The Salt Museum
Land Between the Lakes Kentucky Delt Queen at Ft. Donelson
Highways are planned to go through Public Lands i.e. Parks Central Park is New York City's Only patch Of Green
My Land Is Dying by Harry Caudile Major Theme/Focus: Strip Mining In Kentucky Dan Gibson: "My Land Is Dying" Strip mining is a method of mining coal using machines
Types of Machines Used Augers Big Muskie Bulldozers
Property Rights: Legalized Long Term Deeds: Their property "Rights" were sold cheaply.
Environmental Damage Sulfur Dioxides Soil Erosion Land Reclamation = Restoring the Land
The Silent Spring By Rachel Carson Major Theme/Focus: Chemical Insecticides/Herbicides/Pesticides DDT: (Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane) Which became outlawed after this book Solutions: Natural Enemies