Ch 39:Gerunds and Gerundives Kennedy discovers the Gerund and leads it back into captivity. A Gerund chases some pronouns.
Verbal Nouns in Latin • In Latin, there are three types of verbal nouns. • Infinitives(“to verb”) • Supines(“to verb”) • Gerunds (“verbing”)
Gerunds • A gerund is a verbal noun that is typically translated as “verbing”. • Although it ends in “-ing”, it is not a participle because it does not modify another noun. • Watch out for the running man! • Man, I really love running! Participle! Gerund!
Gerunds • Forming gerunds is as easy as knowing how to form the gerundive. • Remember, a gerundive was the future passive participle that ended in ndus, nda, ndum.
Forming the Gerundive / Gerund • To form the Gerundive, simply take the Present Stemfrom a verb and add “ndus, a, um”onto it. • cf. Amanda, Miranda and agenda (A good way to remember the ending is from the word gerundive) • Note that since the Gerundive is an adjective, it exists in all 3 genders, but the gerund (a noun) only exists in one gender: the neuter To form the gerund from the gerundive, just use the 2nd decl. neuter singular endings!
Gerunds The Gerund of amō, amāre, amāvī, amātum
Gerunds • Things to note about the formation of Gerunds: 1.There is no nominative gerund. The form is fulfilled by the present active infinitive. 2. These are the only forms of gerunds. They do not have different masculine or feminine forms. 3. There are no plurals. Inf. used as nom. = Subjective Inf.
Using Gerunds A gerund is used in the same fashion as a normal noun. Therefore, it can serve any syntactical function (direct object, abl. of means, objective gen., etc.) They are always active and can take direct objects. Habeo amorem scrībendī. I have a love of writing. Discimus legendo libros. We learn by reading books. Obj. Gen. Abl. Of Means Acc. D.O. (of Gerund)
Using Gerunds for Purpose causāand grātiātake the gerund in the genitive to express purpose. gerund is always placed before (i.e., “preceding”) causāand grātiā. causāand grātiāare both translated as “for the sake of…” Rōmam vēnī multa videndī causā. I came to Rome for the sake of seeing many things.
Using Gerunds for Purpose ad can be used with a gerund in the accusative to express purpose. In this construction, the gerund is usually placed after ad. adis translated as “for the purpose of…” Arma cēpit ad pugnandum. He took up arms for the purpose of fighting.
Gerundives We have already seen gerundives and have learned that they should be translated as “ought to be verbed” or “must be verbed” . With a form of sum, the gerundive is used in the Passive Periphrastic: Id nobisfaciendumest. It must be done by us. It ought to be done by us. Remember: we use a DATIVE of Agent with a Pass. Periph.
Transforming to Gerundives What often happens is when the gerund takes noun in accusative, the Roman put the noun in case in which the gerund would be and use a gerundive A: Studium legendi libros B: studium librorum legendorum A: Libros legendo operam dat B: Libris legendis operam dat. However, the difference between this usage and the use of a gerund is that the gerundive modifies a nounand the gerund stands alone.
Exempli Gratia: Rōmam vēnī matremvidendī causā. I came to Rome for the sake of seeing (my) mother. Rōmam vēnī matris videndae causā. I came to Rome for the sake of seeing (my) mother. Arma cēpit ad pugnandum hostes. He took up arms for the purpose of fighting the enemy. Arma cēpit ad pugnandos hostes. He took up arms for the purpose of fighting the enemy.
Gerunds vs. Gerundives Therefore, the basic difference between gerunds and gerundives is that . . . . GERUNDIVES MODIFY A NOUN BUT GERUNDS STAND ALONE
Expressing Purpose in Latin: We now know several ways to express PURPOSE in Latin: Purpose Clause: with ut/ne + Subjunctive Rōmam venio ut matrem videam. Supine: Acc. of Supinewith a verb of motion Rōmam venio matrem visum. Gerund/Gerundive: with causā, grātiā, and ad Rōmam vēnī matrem videndī causā. Rōmam vēnī matris videndae causā
Direct Questions We have seen a couple ways that Romans could ask direct questions: - interrogative pronouns (quis, quid) - other interrogative words (cur, ubi, etc) - adding –ne to the first word in a question These have no expectation of a specific answer! We can also ask leading questions in Latin by using the particles Nonneand Num.
Ne, Nonne and Num The enclitic –ne marks a question of unexpected/indefinite answer If the speaker expects an answer of yes, nonnewill be used. If an answer of no is expected, num. Nonneillumvirumvidisti? Numillumvirumvidisti? Vidistineillumvirum. You saw that man, didn’t you? You didn’t see that man, did you? Did you see that man?
- Remember: Dependent Subjunctives use the Sequence of Tenses. Fear Clauses
Fear clauses If you’re afraid of something, it can function as a direct object. ex: I fear the dog. - Timeocanem. However, if you’re afraid that something will happen, that action is a fear clause. ex: I fear that none of you will study. This is hypothetical right? So what will we use? A SUBJUNCTIVE!
Fear Clause Formula Verb of Fearing + ut/nē + Subjunctive Verb Use the ut when you’re afraid something will NOT happen (and thus you want it to happen!) Use nē when you’re afraid something will happen (and thus you don’t want it to happen!) So, it’s essentially opposite what you would normally expect of ut/nē in the other subjunctive clauses we’ve seen
Translating and Exempla: In fearing clauses, translate: ut – “that…not” ne – “that” or “lest” Remember: opposite of what you’d expect! For the subjunctive verbs: use auxiliaries: “will” / “may” – or – “would” / “might” Timeo ut ille veniat. Timeo ne ille veniat. Sec. Seq. Prim. Seq.
Genitive and Ablative of Description A noun in either the genitive or ablative can be used to describe the characteristics of another noun. NB: there must be an adjective with the gen./abl. phrase While both can express character/quality/size, generally the ablative was used to denote physical characteristics.
Translate: “of…” (in either case) – or – “with” (abl. only) Femina magnae sapientiae. Miles firma manu. Vir summa virtute et humanitate. You’ve done this for months!