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Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator — Lesson 7

Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator — Lesson 7. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator Handbook, 2 nd Edition Chapter 7 — Fire Hose Nozzles and Flow Rates. Learning Objectives. 1. Define fire stream. 2. List factors that influence a fire stream.

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Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator — Lesson 7

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  1. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator — Lesson 7 Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator Handbook, 2nd Edition Chapter 7 — Fire Hose Nozzles and Flow Rates

  2. Learning Objectives 1. Define fire stream. 2. List factors that influence a fire stream. 3. Explain why driver/operators must be knowledgeable about fire streams and nozzles. 4. Select facts about solid stream nozzles. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  3. Learning Objectives 5. State the equation for determining the flow from a solid stream nozzle. 6. Calculate nozzle flow from a solid stream nozzle. 7. Match fog stream terms to their definitions. 8. Select facts about fog stream nozzles. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  4. Learning Objectives 9. List the factors influencing the reach of a fog stream. 10. List the types of fog stream nozzles. 11. Identify characteristics of various types of fog stream nozzles. 12. Answer questions about handline nozzles. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  5. Learning Objectives 13. Select facts about master stream nozzles and the four basic categories. 14. Describe when to use master stream nozzles. 15. Identify characteristics of special purpose nozzles. 16. Select facts about nozzle reaction. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  6. Learning Objectives 17. Identify working limits for velocity of fire streams for various nozzles and handlines. 18. State the equation for determining nozzle reaction for solid stream nozzles. 19. State the equation for determining nozzle reaction for fog stream nozzles. 20. Calculate nozzle reaction. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  7. Fire Stream • A fire stream is a stream of water or other extinguishing agent after it leaves a nozzle until it reaches the desired point. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  8. Fire Stream • Fire streams are influenced by: • Velocity • Gravity • Wind • Friction with the air • Operating pressures • Nozzle design • Nozzle adjustment • Condition of the nozzle orifice (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  9. Fire Stream • The type of fire stream applied to a fire depends on the nozzle being used. • Each nozzle has its own optimum flow rate and discharge pressure, which affects the calculations performed by the driver/operator. • Driver/Operators must understand the capabilities of each nozzle to provide the appropriate pressure and volume of water. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  10. Solid Stream Nozzles • Produce a stream as compact as possible with little shower or spray • Reach areas that other streams might not (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  11. Solid Stream Nozzles • May be used on handlines, portable or apparatus-mounted master streams, or elevated master streams • Are designed so that the shape of the water in the nozzle is gradually reduced until it reaches a point a short distance from the outlet; at this point, the nozzle becomes a cylindrical bore whose length is from one to one and one-half times its diameter (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  12. Solid Stream Nozzles • Have a smooth-finish waterway that contributes to both the shape and reach of the stream Note: Alteration or damage to the nozzle can significantly alter stream shape and performance. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  13. Solid Stream Nozzles • Nozzle pressure and the size of the discharge opening determine the flow and stream reach. • Should be operated at 50 psi (350 kPa) on handlines • Should be operated at 80 psi (560 kPa) on master stream devices Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  14. Determining Flow from a Solid Stream Nozzle (Customary) • GPM = 29.7 x d2 x √NP GPM = Discharge in gallons per minute 29.7 = A constant d = Diameter of the orifice in inches NP = Nozzle pressure in psi Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  15. Determining Flow from a Solid Stream Nozzle (Metric) • L/min = 0.067 x d2 x √NP L/min = Discharge in liters per minute 0.067 = A constant d = Diameter of the orifice in millimeters NP = Nozzle pressure in kPa Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  16. Fog Stream Terms • Periphery — The line bounding a rounded surface; the outward boundary of an object distinguished from its internal regions • Deflection — A turning or state of being turned; a turning from a straight line or given course; a bending; a deviation • Impinge — To stroke or dash about or against; clashing with a sharp collision; to come together with force Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  17. Fog Streams • May be produced by deflection at the periphery or by impinging jets of water or by a combination • When water is discharged at angles to the direct line of discharge, the reaction forces largely balance each other, reducing nozzle reaction. • This balancing is why fog patterns are easier to handle than solid or stream patterns. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  18. Periphery-Deflected Streams • Produced by deflecting water from the periphery of an inside circular stem in a periphery-deflected fog nozzle; this water is again deflected by exterior barrel • Shape is determined by the relative positions of the deflecting stem and the exterior barrel Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  19. Impinging Stream Nozzle • Drives several jets of water together at a set angle to break the water into finely divided particles • Usually produces a wide-angle fog pattern, but a narrow pattern is possible Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  20. Reach of a Fog Stream • Is directly dependent on • Width of the stream • Size of water droplets • Wind • Amount of water flowing Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  21. Constant Flow Nozzles • Are designed to flow a specific amount of water at a specific nozzle discharge pressure on all stream patterns • Utilize a periphery-deflected stream • Discharge the same volume of water regardless of the pattern setting (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  22. Constant Flow Nozzles • Are intended to be operated at a nozzle pressure of 100 psi (700 kPa) • Some may operate at 50 to 75 psi (350 kPa to 535 kPa) for special applications such as high-rise fire fighting (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  23. Constant Flow Nozzles Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  24. Manually Adjustable Nozzles • Have a number of constant flow settings, enabling a flow rate that best suits the existing conditions • Supply the selected flow at the rated nozzle discharge pressure; actual flow will differ if proper pressure cannot be supplied • Are designed to supply the gallonage marked on each setting at a nozzle pressure of 100 psi (700 kPa) (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  25. Manually Adjustable Nozzles • CAUTION! Take care when adjusting flow settings. Nozzles that are set on a low flow may not provide the volume of water needed to sufficiently cool a burning fuel. The minimum flow setting for interior structural firefighting is 95 to 100 gpm (380 L/min to 400 L/min). Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  26. Automatic Nozzles • Are the most common variable flow nozzles in use • Are also referred to as constant pressure nozzles or multipurpose nozzles • Are variable flow nozzles with pattern-change capabilities and the ability to maintain the same nozzle pressure (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  27. Automatic Nozzles (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  28. Automatic Nozzles • Maintain approximately same nozzle pressure and pattern if gallonage supplied to nozzle changes • Can have a stream that appears adequate, but may not be supplying sufficient water for extinguishment or protection; the goal of the driver/operator is to provide an acceptable flow of water at the discharge pressure for which the nozzle is designed (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  29. Automatic Nozzles • Most are designed for a 100 psi (700 kPa) discharge pressure • Some may be designed for lower pressures such as 50 to 75 psi (350 kPa to 535 kPa) • Serve as a pressure regulator for the pumper as lines are added or shut down, ensuring that available water may be used continuously (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  30. Automatic Nozzles CAUTION! Make sure that adequate pump discharge pressures are used to supply hoselines equipped with automatic nozzles. Nozzles receiving inadequate pressures may not provide the volume of water needed to sufficiently cool a burning fuel even though the stream appears adequate. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  31. Automatic Nozzles • Maintain a constant nozzle pressure of approximately 100 psi (700 kPa), no matter how much the pump discharge pressure is above this figure • Enlarge opening size automatically as pump discharge pressure is increased Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  32. High-Pressure Fog Nozzles • Operate at pressures up to 800 psi (5 600 kPa) • Develop a fog stream with considerable forward velocity but deliver a relatively low volume of water • Deliver water in a very fast-moving, fine spray (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  33. High-Pressure Fog Nozzles • May use an impinging stream • Are best suited for fighting wildland fires • Are not recommended for structural fire fighting because they generally only flow around 8 to 15 gpm (32 L/min to 60 L/min) (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  34. High-Pressure Fog Nozzles Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  35. Handline Nozzles • Are designed to be placed on attack lines that can be easily maneuvered by firefighters • May be of the solid, fog, impinging, or broken stream type • Range in size from small booster line nozzles for ¾-inch (19 mm) booster line to large fog or solid stream nozzles for 3-inch (77 mm) hoseline (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  36. Handline Nozzles • Can flow a maximum of 350 gpm (1 400 L/min) safely; flows greater than 350 gpm (1 400 L/min) produce nozzle reactions that make the hoselines difficult and dangerous for firefighters to handle Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  37. Master Stream Nozzles • Include any fire stream that is too large to be controlled without mechanical aid • Are powerful and generate a considerable amount of nozzle reaction force; it is extremely important that firefighters take proper safety precautions (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  38. Master Stream Nozzles • May be either solid or fog streams; both utilize a nozzle of sufficient size to deliver the higher flows • Are usually operated at 80 psi (560 kPa) (smoothbore) and 100 psi (700 kPa) (fog) • Flow 350 gpm (1 400 L/min) or greater (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  39. Master Stream Nozzles • Are used when • Handlines would be ineffective • Conditions are unsafe • Manpower is limited (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  40. Master Stream Nozzles • Are used from fixed positions, so most have some means for moving the stream in either a vertical or horizontal plane, or both • To permit such adjustments, the water must pass through one or more sharp bends • On some larger master stream devices, there are two bends to form a loop in the shape of a ram’s horns. • Some other master stream devices have a single bent-pipe waterway. (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  41. Master Stream Nozzles • Friction loss varies from device to device – each department must determine the friction loss in the devices it has available, either by flow test or manufacturer’s documentation Note: Refer to Appendix B for the procedure for determining friction loss in master stream devices. Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  42. Monitors • Are often incorrectly referred to as deluge sets • Differ in one important way: with a monitor, the stream direction and angle can be changed while water is being discharged (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  43. Monitors • Fixed (sometimes called a deck gun or turret) — Is permanently mounted on the apparatus • Combination — Is mounted on the apparatus, but can be used there as a turret or removed and used as a portable monitor • Portable — Can be carried to the location where it is needed (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  44. Monitors Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  45. Turret Pipe • Mounted on a fire apparatus deck and is connected directly to the pump by permanent piping • Also sometimes called a deck gun or deck pipe • Supplied by permanent piping from the pump (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  46. Turret Pipe Photo courtesy Ed Hawthorne Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  47. Deluge Set • Consists of a short length of large diameter hose with a large nozzle or large playpipe supported at the discharge end by a tripod • Has a siamese connection at the supply end • Cannot have direction and angle of the stream changed while discharging water (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  48. Deluge Set Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  49. Elevated Master Streams • Are large-capacity nozzles that are designed to be placed on the end of an aerial device • May be permanently attached to elevating platforms and preplumbed aerial ladders or may be detachable Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

  50. Ladder Pipes • Are a master stream device used in conjunction with aerial ladders • Are attached to the rungs of an aerial ladder and are supplied by fire hose (Continued) Pumping Apparatus Driver/Operator

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