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Schema Theory of Learning

Schema Theory of Learning

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Schema Theory of Learning

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  1. Schema Theory of Learning Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos

  2. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Outline • Overview of Schema Theory • Properties of Schemas • Functions of Schemas • Application of Schemas to Instruction

  3. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Memory • Memories tend to include much inaccurate information • Inaccuracies in memory are systematic and predictable • Memories depend on prior experience • Illustration: Memory for people in attendance at lecture

  4. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Freeman, Romney, & Freeman (1987) • Memory for classroom attendance • Who was at last week’s lecture? • Error rate 50% • People actually in class but forgotten • In-group: 4.7 people • Out-group: 8.1 people • More organized schema for in-group resulted in more accurate recall • People not in lecture but recalled as present • In-group: 2.8 people • Out-group: 0.4 people • More typical schema for in-group resulted in more false attendances

  5. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Memory • Recall depends on: • Quality of schema organization • Better quality, better memory • How typical the event • More typical, more errors

  6. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Pompi & Lachman (1967) Chief Resident Jones adjusted his face mask while anxiously surveying a pale figure secured to the long gleaming table before him. One swift stroke of his small sharp instrument and a thin red line appeared. Then an eager young assistant carefully extended the opening as another aid pushed aside glistening surface fat so that vital parts were laid bare. Everyone present stared in horror at the ugly growth too large for removal. He now knew it was pointless to continue.

  7. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Pompi & Lachman (1967) • Doctor • Nurse • Blood • Scalpel • Operation • Blue • Piano • Beautiful • Thin • Pushed • Secured • Surface • Surveying • No • No • No • No • No • Red • Instrument • Ugly • Fat • Yes • Yes • Yes • Yes

  8. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Schema • Schema: Structure for representing concepts in memory • Schemata: Plural • Schema: Singular • Schema Theory: Theory of how knowledge is represented and how the representation of knowledge guides the application of knowledge • Incoming information from the environment is organized around previously developed schema • Gist: Central idea

  9. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Schema • Schemas are like: • Dramas: Schemas provide the script where the variables (aka characters, setting, and action) are unique to each performance • Theories: Interpret phenomenon and make predictions about unobserved events • Procedures/Algorithms: Evaluate new information to determine the fit to the schema and then directs future behavior

  10. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Properties of Schemas • Schemas are developed by prior knowledge and experience • Actively build schemas and revise in light of new information • Information from the environment is processed and transformed depending on prior schemas • Schemas help people understand, interpret, and remember incoming information • Facilitates memory because it is easier to remember schema than details • Culture influences schemas • Memory for knowledge or an event is determined by the cultural context in which it takes place

  11. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Bransford & Johnson (1972)

  12. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Bransford & Johnson (1972) If the balloons popped, the sound wouldn't be able to carry since everything would be too far away from the correct floor. A closed window would also prevent the sound from carrying, since most buildings tend to be well insulated. Since the whole operation depends on a steady flow of electricity, a break in the middle of the wire would also cause problems. Of course, the fellow could shout, but the human voice is not loud enough to carry that far. An additional problem is that a string could break on the instrument. Then there could be no accompaniment to the message. It is clear that the best situation would involve less distance. Then there would be fewer potential problems. With face to face contact, the least number of things could go wrong

  13. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos • About the James headache woman her asked. • James asked the woman about her headache.

  14. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Schemas and Information Processing • Perception: Attaching meaning to a stimulus • Bottom-Up : Notice separate defining features and assemble them into a recognizable pattern • Top-down: Perceive based on the context and the patterns you expect to occur in the situation

  15. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Schemas and Information Processing • Schema Theory proposes an interaction between bottom-up and top-down processing • Incoming information activates a schema • Bottom-up • Facilitates activation and modification of old schema or generation of new schema • Once appropriate schema is activated, schema fills in necessary but not explicit details with assumed values • Top-down

  16. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Schema and Information Processing • Concept: General category whose members share certain properties. • Prototype: Best representative of a concept. • Prototypes result from experiences with many exemplars of the concept • Incoming information is compared to the prototypical schema

  17. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Schemas and Information Processing • If incoming information matches the script, schema is strengthened • If incoming information does not match the script, search for more accurate schema • Information that does not fit into any schema likely to: • Not be comprehended or • Comprehended incorrectly

  18. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Schemas and Information Processing • Information Processing: Incoming information matches outgoing information • Memory matches the environment • Schema Theory: Active attempt to understand information based on prior knowledge and experiences • Memories are shaped by prior knowledge and experiences

  19. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Functions of Schema • Organize knowledge • Assist recall • Guide behavior • Enable predictions • Make sense of current experiences

  20. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Learning New Knowledge • Three reactions to new information: • Accretion: Incorporate new information to existing schemata without making changes to the schemata • Tuning: Modify schemata to be more consistent with experience • Restructuring: Create a new schemata because of inconsistency between old schemata and new information

  21. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Benefits of Schema • Benefits of connecting new information to prior knowledge: • Better retention of information • Better ability to access information in authentic situations

  22. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos You have been employed by a manufacturer of educational materials to ensure that the cards in one of their educational games have been correctly produced. The rule governing the production of the card states that if the card has the letter S on one side, then it has the number 3 on the other. Each card has a letter on one side and a number on the other. Indicate which cards you definitelyneed to turn over, and only those cards, to determine whether the rule is broken in the case of any of these four cards. S Q 3 7

  23. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos You are the Housemaster at a boarding school. It is your responsibility to ensure that the students keep their rooms tidy, so you introduce a rule which states that if a student eats biscuits then their room must be tidy. Each card represents one student. One side states whether or not the student’s room is tidy. The other side details whether they have been eating cookies. Indicate the cards you definitely need to turn over, and only those cards, to determine whether the rule is broken from any of the four students. Ate cookies No cookies Messy room Tidy room

  24. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Expert and Novice Schema • Watson Selection Task (Watson, 1966) • Cheater Detection Task: Second contextualized item • Learning is easier in context • Expertise in a domain influences performance

  25. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Expert and Novice Schema • Experts: Complete and comprehensive schemata • Recognize a pattern related to a developed schema • Enable to reason using specific, domain-based strategies • Use automatized skills • Novice: Incomplete schemata • Use general problem solving strategies • Greater load on working memory

  26. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Goal of Education • Students construct and apply appropriate schemata to solve practical problems in various domains • Become “expert” problem solvers in school courses • Instructional Strategies • Reduce extra cognitive load – Irrelevant tasks • Increase relevant cognitive load

  27. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Identifying Students’ Schemas • Observe • Ask for explanation • Ask to make predictions • Ask to teach another student

  28. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Teaching Strategies • Connect new information to prior knowledge • Advanced Organizer: Bridge between new information and prior knowledge • Schema Signals: Indicate the schema that students should use to approach the new information • Make instructional materials meaningful • Concept Maps: Diagram showing the relationship between concepts • Identify and correct schemas that are contradictory, wrong, or unnecessary • Directly teach transfer

  29. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Developing an Advanced Organizer • List major principles of new lesson • List knowledge or skills necessary for understanding new material • Assess students’ understanding of prerequisite material • Re-teach knowledge and skills if necessary • Write the advanced organizer that illuminates the similarities between old and new concepts

  30. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Using Advanced Organizers • Present Advanced Organizer • Present content • Use examples beginning from simple to complex • Relate content back to the Advanced Organizer

  31. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Advanced Organizers • Checklist for good Advanced Organizers: • Does the organizer allow students to discover the logical relationships in the lesson? • Does the organizer relate unfamiliar material to existing knowledge? • Is the organizer easy for the learner to use?

  32. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Advanced Organizers • Cognitive theories focus on cognitive processes. • Before Spring Break, we discussed reasoning. Today we are going to discuss teaching methods. • When discussing the Deviation IQ in the chapter on intelligence, I introduced you to a standard deviation. Standard deviations represent the variance of a variable. When one has calculated the variance of multiple variables, then factor analysis can be used to determine the communality of each variable. • Bruner’s teaching method consisted of having students generalize a rule from examples. Ausubel, on the other hand, viewed effective learning as typically taking place when teachers present the general rule first, and then examples later.

  33. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Schemata Behaviorism Classical Conditioning: Involuntary behavior Operant Conditioning: Voluntary behavior Unconditioned Stimulus Conditioned Stimulus Reinforcement: Behavior is repeated Punishment: Behavior stops UnconditionedResponse Conditioned Response Negative Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement Positive Punishment Negative Punishment Present Remove

  34. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Developing Concept Maps • Place the main idea in a circle in the center • List all concepts to include in the concept map • Group the concepts by higher-order topics • Place the higher-order topics in circles linked to the main idea • Link the concepts around the higher-order topic • Verify the connections on the concept map and change if necessary

  35. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Concept Maps • Benefits of Concept Maps • Hierarchical structure helps organize major concepts • Cross-links between concepts helps to see how different concepts are related

  36. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Classroom Implications • Prior knowledge influences what and how a student learns • What is remembered is largely a function of what was understood to begin with • Students learn best when they link new information with related existing ideas • Information is forgotten unless integrated into existing schemata • The schemas of students are different from each other and from the teacher • Both understanding and memory are driven by meaning • Learning should occur in the context in which it will be used

  37. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Schema Theory Overview • Results: Organized representation of knowledge in memory • Means: Comparison of new information to previously developed schemas • Accretion • Tuning • Restructuring • Inputs: Information that fits into previously developed schemas

  38. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Schema Theory Overview • Learning Outcomes: Schema, Organized body of knowledge used to interpret new information • Role of the Learner: Apply previously existing schema to new problems and modify schemas as appropriate • Role of the Instructor: Identify students’ previously developed schema • Integrate new information with previously developed schemas • Correct inaccurate schemas • Inputs for Learning: Link between new information and previous schemas • Process of Learning: Accretion, tuning, and restructuring of schema

  39. Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Revision • What are schemas and how do they influence perception? • How does top-down and bottom-up perception influence the application and development of schemas? • What are the three ways that schemas are developed? • How does schema theory influence education?