Download
the social realities of aging n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
The Social Realities of Aging PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
The Social Realities of Aging

The Social Realities of Aging

2 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

The Social Realities of Aging

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. The Social Realities of Aging

  2. Video Activity 1

  3. My heart leaps up when I behold A rainbow in the sky: So was it when my life began; So is it now I am a man; So be it when I shall grow old, Or let me die! The Child is father of the Man; I could wish my days to be Bound each to each by natural piety. William Wordsworth, 1802.

  4. Video: 42 Up • “Show me the boy at age 7, and I will show you the man.” • Is the child the father of the man? • Agree or disagree? Why? • Influences on development? Types? • Hand in Activity Sheet • Make sure you write your name

  5. Milestones and Tasks of Adulthood? • Adolescence and Young Adulthood • 12-20 years • 20-40 years • Middle Adulthood • 40-65 years • Late Adulthood • 65+ yrs

  6. Life-Span development • lifelong process • both increases and decreases, and gains and losses, in behaviour • Is modifiable or reversible: plasticity • Multidimensional, multidirectional, multicausal • Multiple cultural, social, historical contexts

  7. Domains of Adult Development • Physical, cognitive, personality, social • Physical • Concepts of aging • Structural and functional change over time • Reserve capacity: “over-engineered”

  8. Cognitive • Declines in some domains • Memory, timing • Gains in others • Wisdom, expertise, post-formal thinking

  9. Personality • Intimacy, generativity, integration • Social • Tasks of development? • Successful Aging • Increased period of health and activity in later years (thriving) • Decreased period of decline and disability

  10. Social Realities of Aging • Demography of Aging • World Trends • Modernization • Globalization • increased influence of events, trends happening elsewhere

  11. Increased aging population • Number countries with more than 2 million elderly (65+) • 1991: 27 • 2020: 49 (projected) • Projection 1985-2025 • Greatest expansion of elderly in developing countries • Canada: 135 % increase

  12. Population Pyramid • Approaching rectangular shape in Canada • Subpopulations differ • E.g. Nunavut

  13. Income • Drops (retirement) • Females < Males • Occupation • Significant percentage over 65 years continue working

  14. Faster growth in aging population in Canada than U.S. • Immigration (adults) • Increased life expectancy • Declining birthrate • 1960: 31.4 births/1,000 persons • 1994: 13.4 births/1,000 persons

  15. Proportion of elderly in Canada • (1992): 12 percent • (2000): 13 percent (15% in Manitoba) • Challenges? • Assisted living • Ageism

  16. Ageism • Stereotyped attitudes toward elderly by younger groups • Limits to human opportunity • Interacts with other sources of stereotyping • gender • ethnicity • SES

  17. Myths/Misconceptionsabout Aging • poor health • low income • loneliness • limited occupations • poor housing

  18. Institutional Challenges • curriculum materials • coursework in professional programs • TV, popular culture, advertising

  19. Professional attitudes • Research interest/bias • Clinicians’ preferences • Homogenization • Infantalization

  20. Elder Abuse/Neglect • physical • psychological • financial

  21. Ideas and Issues • Influences on Development • Lifespan development • Domains of development • Changing demographics • Challenges • Need for more information about development in adulthood

  22. Research in Adult Development

  23. Goals of Research • Description (age-related change) • Prediction (correlations) • Understanding (causes of change) • Control • Therapy • Guidance

  24. Research process 1. Theory/observation generates hypothesis 2. Hypothesis “operationalized” 3. Method designed, results collected 4. Hypothesis confirmed or rejected 5. Confidence in theory is increased or decreased (modified theory)

  25. Challenges of Studying Adults • No “captive audience” • Sampling problems (external validity – Generalizability) • Cohort effects • Selective attrition • Tools to assess behaviour • Age-appropriate?

  26. Validity • Construct • Measure reflects what is true about the target characteristic • IQ test norms don’t always cover entire life span • Internal (causality) • Necessary conditions: • Correlation between traits • Time-ordering (cause before effect) • No alternative explanations (experimental control)

  27. Reliability • Consistency of results • If study repeated on same individuals, expect similar results • Test-retest • Inter-observer (if more than one “judge” of behaviour)

  28. Data Collection • Observation • Naturalistic (real world, no control, reactivity) • Laboratory (control, artificial)

  29. Self-Reports • Surveys, questionnaires • Easy, quick, but • Social desirability, demand characteristics • Case Study, Archival • Rich information • Retrospective, limited generalizability

  30. Research Designs • Correlation • Relationships between traits • prediction • Experimentation • Internal validity: random allocation to treatment/placebo • causality

  31. Developmental Designs • Test for effects: • Age • Cohort • History

  32. Longitudinal • Developmental change • Age effects • Time, expense • Confounds • Selective attrition • History (events between testing periods)

  33. Cross-sectional • Developmental differences (between age groups) • Age effects • Inexpensive, quick • Potential confounds • Cohort effects

  34. Sequential Designs • Check on confounds • Selection (cohort) • History (events/changes between test times) • Testing (practice)

  35. Time of Testing

  36. Age Effects: Longitudinal

  37. Age Effects: Cross-Sectional

  38. Cohort Effects

  39. History Effects

  40. Theory

  41. Theoretical Approaches • Mechanistic • Organismic • Contextual • Nature-Nurture interactions • Stage/continuous • Many paths/universal

  42. World Views • Mechanistic • Nurture: environment, life circumstances • Continuous • Individual – many paths, all experience is unique