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MAS.961 How To Make Something That Makes (Almost) Anything. Complexity, Self Replication and all that…. jacobson@media.mit.edu. What governs the cost of placing atoms where we want them? What are the limits?. Si Wafer with Area sufficient for 2 Billion Transistors Cost: ~$0.50.

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## MAS.961 How To Make Something That Makes (Almost) Anything

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**MAS.961**How To Make Something That Makes (Almost) Anything Complexity, Self Replication and all that… jacobson@media.mit.edu**What governs the cost of placing atoms where we want them?**What are the limits? Si Wafer with Area sufficient for 2 Billion Transistors Cost: ~$0.50 Flash Memory Transistor Count: 2B Cost: ~$3 Itanium Quad Tukwila Transistor Count: 2B Cost: ~$100 NetBook Cost: ~$200 Sand (Chips and Screen) Cost: ~$0 Plastic Resin / Metal Ore Cost: ~$4**Fabricational Complexity**Where is the yield per fabricational step A G T C G C A A T N Fabricational Complexity for N-mer or M Types = Fabricational Cost for N-mer = Fabricational Complexity Per Unit Cost Complexity Per Unit Cost Complexity Per Unit Time*Energy**Fabricational Complexity**Application: Why Are There 20 Amino Acids in Biology? (What is the right balance between Codon code redundancy and diversity?) N Blocks of Q Types Question:Given N monomeric building blocks of Q different types, what is the optimal number of different types of building blocks Q which maximizes the complexity of the ensemble of all possible constructs? The complexion for the total number of different ways to arrange N blocks of Q different types (where each type has the same number) is given by: . And the complexity is: For a given polymer length N we can ask which Q* achieves the half max for complexity such that:**Fabricational Complexity**Application: Identifying New Manufacturing Approach for Semiconductors …Can we use this map as a guide towards future directions in fabrication?**Printed Electronics**Lithography Printed Electronics + Liquid Inorganic Semiconductors[1] High Speed Printing ~ 3Weeks of 7x24 Processing ~Minutes [1] Ridley et al., Science, 286, 746 (1999) Science 297,416 (2000)**Fabricational Complexity**…Can we use this map as a guide towards future directions in fabrication?**DNA Synthesis**template dependant 5'-3' primer extension 3'-5' proofreading exonuclease 5'-3' error-correcting exonuclease Example: [A] Synthesize 1500 Nucleotide Base Gene. Error Rate = 0.99 (0.99)1500 ~ 10-7. [B] 3000 Nucleotide Base Gene. (0.99)3000 ~ 10-13.**Fabricational Complexity Per Unit Cost**2 Ply Error Correction Non Error Correcting: A G T C 2Ply Error Correcting: A G T C A G T C p=0.99**Fabricational Complexity Per Unit Cost**3 Ply Error Correction (c) (a) (b) Non Error Correcting: A G T C 3Ply Error Correcting: A G T C A G T C , For values of A G T C and R increases exponentially with N.**Resources for Exponential Scaling**Resources which increase the complexity of a system exponentially with a linear addition of resources 1] Error Correcting Fabrication 2] Fault Tolerant Hardware Architectures 3] Fault Tolerant Software or Codes 4] Quantum Phase Space**Advanced_Automation_for_Space_Missions_figure_5-29.gif**Self-Replicating Systems**Information Poor Replication**Autocatalytic Chemistry Replicated Parts Lack Complexity**Information Rich Replication**(Non-Protein Biochemical Systems) J. Szostak, Nature,409, Jan. 2001**Replication Cycle**Parts + + + Template + + + Machine Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Threshold for Life What is the Threshold for Self Replicating Systems? Measurement Theory DNA Error Correcting Exonuclease (Ruler) Watson Crick .18 nm /sandwalk.blogspot.com/2007/12/dna-denaturation-and-renaturation-and.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Stem-loop.svg How Well Can N Molecules Measure Distance? Probability of Self Replication Number of Nucleotides**Threshold for Life**Generalized Theory Measurement Theory Machine of N Blocks at Temperature T Measures the Correctness of the new added block. Energy: Energy consumption per replication (dominated by measurement just like in Szilard Maxwell’s Demon): Must Determine size (position) to within 1 atom: Heisenberg limit: lambda / number of photons 0.1 nm = 5000 * 500nm photons ~ 5 Kev per addition Number of Building Blocks: N Block machine must serve as a stable reference point to make measurement on the new added block.**Autonomous self replicating machines from**random building blocks**Mechrep**Emthingy Rep5mer In Presentations/Saul**Mean-Green von Neumann Machine**• X Prize Rules • Prize Awarded to First Team to construct multiple copies of a machine that: • Consumes readly available raw materials (garbage,rocks, soil, air, water) • 2. Produces renewable energy at reasonable area/power (concentrated solar,photovoltaic cells, wind) • 3. Manufactures every part required to replicate itself

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