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Raphael Cohen-Almagor

Raphael Cohen-Almagor

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Raphael Cohen-Almagor

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  1. In Internet’s Way:Terrorism, Hate, Child-Pornography and Crime-Facilitating Speech on the Free Highway Raphael Cohen-Almagor

  2. Lecture Plan Five sections: • Introduction • Terror • Racism and Hate • Crime-facilitating speech • Child-pornography

  3. Lecture Plan Each section is separated by a poem • Two were read during the inaugurations of Bill Clinton • One was written (but not read) for Barack Obama for his Inauguration • One was read for the Inauguration of Janet Napolitano, Governor of the State of Arizona • One was written by me for this Inaugural Lecture. I thank Dr. Jane Thomas for reading the poems.

  4. My contribution

  5. My contribution

  6. content mannerן Speaker’s intentions circumstances practical test speech

  7. Relevant Theories • Social Responsibility • Moral panic • The "democratic Catch" • Incitement • True threats • Intimidation

  8. The Internet • The Internet contains the best products of humanity

  9. Ufff…

  10. Worse of Humanity Unfortunately, the Internet also contains the worse products of humanity: • Child Pornography, Pedophilia • Terror • Racism, Hate speech and Holocaust denial • Crime-facilitating speech

  11. Relevant Factors • History • Culture • Law

  12. From Sitafa Harden / Glory in the Gathering PlaceFor Barack Obama for his Inauguration Stand Mighty Nation, a witness to Nations That Strength is not a sword, nor Power tyranny The Inevitableness of Possibility prevails That which we have divulged has made us strong Sing! A chorus verse to a redemption song Rejoice, child! Rejoice into the Millennium O hear the People’s voices joining in crescendo! Stand, Mighty Nation, a witness to Nations That We are One

  13. Terror

  14. September 11, 2001 September 11 and other terrorist operations were facilitated by the Internet.

  15. E-jihad • The term E-jihad refers to the way information technology is applied by groups such as al-Qaeda in order to organize logistics for their campaigns, through the application of email and encrypted files, as well as a means for developing their own strategic intelligence.

  16. September 11, 2001 • Members of Al Qaeda are sending each other thousands of messages in a password-protected section of agreed-upon websites • Sometimes they simply take over legitimate sites • In the wake of September 11, Internet providers shut down several sites associated with Dr. Sheikh Abdullah Azzam, mentor of bin Laden

  17. Haganah (Defence) • Haganah,, a US-based pro-Zionist website run by Aaron Weisburd, tracks down jihadi sites and informs their ISPs that they are hosting a terrorist site, which usually ensures it is closed down immediately. Haganah has shut down more than 700 jihadi sites

  18. jihadi websites • Most jihadi websites have several sections. • The most important and largest is usually the religion section, which contains fatwas explaining who can be targeted legitimately. • Quranic references to jihad, the different ways jihad can be expressed, aspects of martyrdom, and online doctrinal consultations with religious sages.

  19. jihadi websites • In the jihad section, would-be recruits are encouraged to join the battle. • Some general advice is given, e.g., the best routes into Iraq, names and locations of sympathetic mosques in neighbouring countries. • Galleries of martyr portraits are accompanied by their last wills and testaments, often in the form of a video

  20. jihadi websites • Most sites have IT section where contributors are urged to share their knowledge and develop new ways of using cyberspace to further the cause of jihad. • The bulletin boards or chat rooms are by far the most popular forums on jihadi websites. • Visitors can add comments or reply to ongoing conversations and debates.

  21. jihadi websites • Many jihadi sites have a women’s section where wives and mothers are urged to support their men in jihad and help them in the psychological battle against what one site described as that disease, the weakness which loves life and hates death.

  22. Use of Internet by Terrorists • Providing Information (English, Arabic, other languages, according to the audience) • Seeking Legitimacy • Propaganda – use of cameras, chat rooms; • Socialization and motivation - use chatrooms to create virtual community, and motivate people to take violent actions against the West. • Seeking support

  23. Use of Internet by Terrorists • Spreading tactics – the first beheading in Iraq showed on the Internet motivated copy-cat actions in other countries. Beheading is not part of the culture and tradition in Thailand. The Internet facilitated this knowledge and idea. • Instructions and online manuals • Planning of activities and coordination • Training how to build bombs – significant but not as the uses of propaganda and motivation.

  24. Use of Internet by Terrorists • Facilitation – like us, terrorists use the Internet to organize their travel, to communicate, to find information. • Most fund raising is done person to person – going to an individual and ask for money. Some Internet sites were used to raise money, but this is not a prevalent phenomenon. • Recruitment – a little bit. Not significant • Cyber-terrorism

  25. FromInaugural Poem/ Maya Angelou 20 January 1993, For Bill Clinton’s Inauguration There is a true yearning to respond to The singing River and the wise Rock. So say the Asian, the Hispanic, the Jew The African and Native American, the Sioux, The Catholic, the Muslim, the French, the Greek The Irish, the Rabbi, the Priest, the Sheikh, The Gay, the Straight, the Preacher, The privileged, the homeless, the Teacher. They hear. They all hear The speaking of the Tree. Today, the first and last of every Tree Speaks to humankind. Come to me, here beside the River.

  26. Racism • Some 70,000 racist and hateful sites

  27. From Speech to Action • Three Aryan supremacists, Benjamin Smith, Richard Baumhammers, andJames W. von Brunn who in 1999, 2000 and 2009 respectively went on racially motivated shooting sprees after being exposed (von Brunn also contributed) to Internet racial propaganda. • Smith regularly visited the World Church of the Creator website, a notorious racist and hateful organization. • He said: "It wasn't really 'til I got on the Internet, read some literature of these groups that… it really all came together.“

  28. The Zundelsite • “Women Dined and Danced in Auschwitz” • No gas chambers ever existed • People died in WWII, some were Germans, some Jews

  29. Racism & Holocaust Denial • In Canada, the Zundelsite and other hateful sites were shut down. • Is law the appropriate way to fight against such speech? • Education? • What about accessing such material in libraries and schools? • The importance of historical context

  30. Historical Context and National Boundaries • Yahoo! maintained auction sites via which third parties offered, among other items, Nazi memorabilia for sale. • In 2000, anti-hate campaigners based in France commenced legal proceedings against Yahoo!, alleging violation of French penal laws prohibiting the public display of Nazi “uniforms, insignia or emblems” within French borders. • The Supreme Court of Paris asserted jurisdiction over Yahoo! because its auction sites could be accessed in France; • The court ruled that the US company must “take such measures as will dissuade and render impossible” access to auction sites selling Nazi paraphernalia and any other sites containing pro-Nazi propaganda, and awarded civil damages to the organizations that instigated the action

  31. The Council of Europe • The Council of Europe has adopted a measure that would criminalize Internet hate speech, including hyperlinks to pages that contain offensive content. • The provision, which was passed in 2002 by the council's decision-making body (the Committee of Ministers), updates the 2001 European Convention on Cybercrime.

  32. The Council of Europe • Specifically, the amendment bans "any written material, any image or any other representation of ideas or theories, which advocates, promotes or incites hatred, discrimination or violence, against any individual or group of individuals, based on race, colour, descent or national or ethnic origin, as well as religion if used as pretext for any of these factors."

  33. American Legal Boundaries • True Threats, intimidation • Incitement to murder • How the Internet is used to scare people? • Case law

  34. Machado Date: Fri, 20 Sep 1996 10:58:55 -0700 From: "Mother Fucker (Hates Asians)" <> To: {recipient list omitted to protect privacy of individuals} Subject: FUck You Asian Shit Hey stupid fuckerAs you can see in the name, I hate Asians, including you. If it weren’t for asias [sic] at UCI, it would be a much more popular campus. You are responsible for ALL the crimes that occur on campus. YOU are responsible for the campus being all dirt. YOU ARE RESPONSIBLE. That’s why I want you and your stupid ass comrades to get the fuck out of UCI. IF you don’t I will hunt all of you down and Kill your stupid asses. Do you hear me? I personally will make it my life carreer [sic] to find and kill everyone one [sic] of you personally. OK?????? That’s how determined I am. Get the fuck out. Mother Fucker (Asian Hater)

  35. Shutting Down WebsitesJouhari v. Wilson • US Dept. of Housing & Urban Development, Jouhari and Pilar Horton v. Ryan Wilson and ALPHA HQ, July 19, 2000

  36. Jouhari • Next to Jouhari’s picture, the ALPHA HQ website stated, "Traitors like this should beware, for in our day, they will hung from the neck from the nearest tree or lamp post.“ • The website referred to Jouhari's daughter as "mongrel," listed various types of guns, information where to obtain various weapons, and provided a bomb recipe under the picture of Jouhari's office.

  37. Jouhari • Wilson was charged by the Pennsylvania Commonwealth's Attorney General with threats, harassment, and ethnic intimidation. • The site was removed from the Internet, and the court issued an injunction against the defendant and his organization barring them from displaying certain messages on the Internet.

  38. Planned Parenthood v. American Coalition of Life Activists

  39. Legitimate v. Illegitimate Speech

  40. The Deadly Dozen

  41. The Nuremberg Files

  42. Shutting Down Websites

  43. Arguments for and against Shutting Down Websites • Against Shutting Down: Free expression • Futility – mirror sites, different servers • Source of information for security officers • Difficult to track down sites, hence there is interest to keep them viable • For Shutting Sites: facilitate criminal activity; • Scope of audience: An American server cannot be equated to a server in Yemen

  44. Shutting Down Websites • From discussions with security experts I gather this is not the preferred option. • They would like to keep an open eye on such sites

  45. From Miller Williams / Of History and Hope The children. The children. And how does our garden grow? With waving hands -- oh, rarely in a row -- and flowering faces. And brambles, that we can no longer allow. Who were many people coming together cannot become one people falling apart. Who dreamed for every child an even chance cannot let luck alone turn doorknobs or not. Whose law was never so much of the hand as the head cannot let chaos make its way to the heart. President Clinton's Inauguration 1997

  46. Crime-Facilitating Speech • Assassination – Hit Man • How to kill your wife • Rape • Rape drugs • Silencers • Encryption • Use of proxis •